THE PRIVILEGES OF POLISH KING STEPHEN BATHORY FOR LOYEW 1576 AND 1582 YEARS

Authors

  • Natalia Bilous Institute of History of Ukraine, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15407/mics2019.05.159

Keywords:

privileges, borderlands, Magdeburg Law, Vogt, king Stephen Bathory, Pavlo Sapieha, Loyew,, Kyiv Voivodeship, the Liubech starostvo, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, XVI century

Abstract

The article deals with two privileges of the Polish king Stefan Batory for the Polissya town of Loyew (now the district centre of the Gomel region, the Republic of Belarus). In the 16th century, it was a part of the Liubech starostvo of the Kyiv voivodship. The town is known first of all due to military battles that took place in the neighbourhood. One occurred on July 31, 1649, and the other - during the Second World War, while the pages of its history during the Lithuanian-Polish era, such as the granting of self-government under the Magdeburg law, are still little known.
Stefan Batory privileges for Loyew can be considered exciting and rare archival finds, and they have not yet been published and introduced into scientific circulation. The first - the Magdeburg Law was granted on August 3, 1576, the second - on the Loyew Vogtship for Fedora Volka appeared as an addition to the first one in six years (November 25, 1582). Unlike most of the privileges of the time, inscribed in the books of the royal the chancellery, these two were not written in Latin or Polish, but in Cyrillic. The documents originate from the Archives of the Sangushki princes, which are now stored in the State Archives of Poland in Krakow (Wawel department).
The initiator and recipient of the Magdeburg privileges for Loyew were Pavlo Ivanovych Sapiega, Lubeckij and Loyewsky Starosta from 1560, and the Kyiv Castellan from 1566. He, at his own expense, built the city and the castle Loyew Mountain, that was lying on the Tartar road and defending the Lithuanian border from the Chernihiv side (which at that time belonged to the Moscow state), and was also protecting the state from the Tatar attacks. The privilege of the Loyew Vogts was granted in 1582 to Fedor Volk as the reward for his military service and participation in hostilities.
These documents are exceptional since during the reign of Stefan Batory (1576-1586) only a few cities in this region received similar privileges. The significance of royal privileges for Loyew was enormous – it was a necessary legal basis and a significant impetus for its further development. Residents of Loyew received self-government on the principles of Magdeburg Law and many economic privileges and liberties, which favourably distinguished them among other cities in the region.

References

Archiwum Główne Akt Dawnych w Warszawie (AGAD), Metryka Koronna, ks. 114, k. 110 v. – 114. Privilegii oppidi Loszicze confirmatio.

AGAD. Archiwum Zamoyskich, sygn. 446, k. 38.

Anisavets, M. (2002). Loeӯskiia kirmashy. Belaruski histarychny chasopys, (5), 78- 80.

Bilous, N. (2008) Kyiv naprykintsi ХV – v pershii polovyni ХVII st. Miska vlada i samovriaduvannia. Kyiv, Ukraina: Vydavnychyi dim “Kyievo-Mohylianska akademiia”.

Bilous, N. (2015). Pryvatni mista Kyivskoho voievodstva v pershii polovyni XVII st.: kilkist, osoblyvosti rozvytku ta funktsionuvannia. Ukraina v Tsentralno-Skhidnii Yevropi. Vyp. 15. Kyiv, Ukraina: Instytut istorii Ukrainy NAN Ukrainy.

Charopka, S. (2017). Loeўskaya bytva 1649 goda. U Dneprovskyi parom. Materyaly istoryko-kraevedcheskykh chtenyi 8-9.08.2017 g. (ss. 88-91). Minsk, Belarus.

“Danie listu krolewskiego Wasylu i gromadzie miasta Łojowa o podatki”. U Natsionalna biblioteka Ukrainy im. V. I. Vernadskoho NANU. Instytut rukopysu, f. 1, № 4104, chastyna II, № 1391.

Hurbyk, A. (2015). Ukrainskyi Hetmanat ta Velyke kniazivstvo Lytovske u viiskovo-politychnomu protystoianni 1651 r.: Druha Loievska bytva. U Ukraina Lithuanica: studii z istorii Velykoho kniazivstva Lytovskoho. T. III. Kyiv, Ukraina: Instytut istorii Ukrainy.

Kojałowicz, W. (1897). Herbarz rycerstwa W. X. Litewskiego, tak zwany Compedium czyli o klejnotach albo herbach, których familie stanu rycerskiego w prowincyach Wielkiego Xięstwa Litewskiego zażywają. Kraków: Wyd. "Herolda polskiego".

Kondratiev, I. (2014). Liubetske starostvo (XVI – seredyna XVII st.). Chernihiv, Ukraina: Vydavets Lozovyi V. M.

Kulakovskyi, P. (1998) Zemski uriadnyky Chernihovo-Sivershchyny u 1621–1648 rr. U L. Zashkilniak i M. Krykun (Red.) Tsentralna i Skhidna Yevropa v ХV–ХVIII st. Lviv, Ukraina: Lvivskyi derzhavnyi universytet im. I.Franka

Kulakovskyi, P. (2003). Kantseliariia Ruskoi (Volynskoi) metryky 1569-1673 rr. Studiia z istorii ukrainskoho rehionalizmu v Rechi Pospolytii. Ostroh-Lviv, Ukraina.

Kulakovskyi, P. (2006) Chernihovo-Sivershchyna u skladi Rechi Pospolytoi 1618–1648. Kyiv, Ukraina: Tempora.

Litovskaya metrika. Otd. 1. Ch. 3. (1915) Knigi publichnykh del. Perepisi voyska Litovskogo 1528, 1565, 1567 gg. V Russkaya istoricheskaya biblioteka. T. 33. St. 322, 417. Petrograd, Rossiyskaya imperiya, Tipografiya Glavnogo Upravleniya Udelov.

Lulewicz, H. (1994). Sapieha Paweł. Polski Słownik Biograficzny. T. XXXV/I. Warszawa-Kraków.

Nagielski, M. (2012). Batalia łojowska (31 lipca 1649 r.) w świetle diariusza kancelaryjnego hetmana polnego litewskiego Janusza Radziwiłła. U Theatrum humanae vitae. Studii na poshanu Natali Yakovenko (cc. 371-388). Kyiv, Ukraina: Laurus.

Rossiyskiy arkhiv drevnikh aktov (RGADA), g. Moskva, f. 389, op. 1, d. 196.

RGADA, f. 389, op. 1, d. 214.

RGADA, f. 389, op. 1, d. 216.

Rulikowski, E. (1913). Opis powiatu kijowskiego. Kijów-Warszawa: odbito w Drukarni Narodowej.

Ryska (Volynska) metrika (2002). Regesti dokumentіv Koronnos kantselyarіі dlya ukraіnskykh zemel (Volynske, Kyiivske, Bratslavske, Chernіgіvske voyevodstva) 1569–1673. Kiіv, Ukraina: Derkhavnyy komіtet arkhіvіv Ukrainy.

Timofeenko, A. K probleme lokalizatsii i interpretatsii zamchishcha na Loevoy Gore. U Dneprovskiy parom. Materialy istoriko-kraevedcheskikh chteniy 8-9.08.2017 g. (ss. 77-80-91). Minsk, Belarus.

Tsentralnyi derzhavnyi istorychnyi arkhiv Ukrainy u m. Kyievi, f. 11, op. 1, spr. 1.

Wrede, M. (2010). Itinerarium króla Stefana Batorego 1576- 1586. Warszawa: DIG.

Yakovenko, N. (2008). Ukrainska shliakhta z kintsia ХVI do seredyny ХVII st. Kyiv, Ukraina: Krytyka.

Źródła Dziejowe (1897). Tom XXII: Ziemie Ruskie. Ukraina, dział III. Opisane przez A. Jabłonowskiego. Warszawa, Druk Jana Cotty.

Published

2018-11-08

How to Cite

Bilous, N. (2018). THE PRIVILEGES OF POLISH KING STEPHEN BATHORY FOR LOYEW 1576 AND 1582 YEARS. City History, Culture, Society, (5), 159–173. https://doi.org/10.15407/mics2019.05.159

Issue

Section

Sources for Urban History: Publication and Critics