WORKERS OF DISTRICT TOWN: THE PLANT’S WORKERS OF LUHANS’K IN LABOR’S CONFLICTS AND REVOLUTIONARY WAVES DURING THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Authors

  • Mykhailo Gauchman National Museum of the Republic of Bashkortostan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15407/mics2019.03.051

Keywords:

Luhansk, workers, the First Russian revolution, First World War, Donbass

Abstract

The article deals with the collective actions of plant workers in Luhans’k (in Russian pronunciation – Lugansk) in labour conflicts during the First Russian revolution (1905–1907) and the First World War (1914–1918). This town was one of the main towns of industrial Donbas and the centre of Slovianoserbian district of Ekaterinoslavian province.
The relationships between administration and workers in Luhans’k are investigated on the materials of clerical work of Ekaterinoslavian province and memoirs of participators on events. These sources are especially about the behaviour of workers from two big industrial enterprises – the Gartman plant and the Cartridges plant. In the crisis periods, such as revolutions and wars, the social-political relations are sharpened and changeable. And revolutions and wars left behind enough historical sources for studying workers’ history.
In the Luhans’k’s enterprises, there were – during the First Russian Revolution – the general town’s strike in February 1905, the attempt of the strike to the 1st of May 1905 in the Gartman plant, the strike in the Gartman plant in July 1905, the mass unrest in December 1905, the attempt of the strike to the 1st of May 1906 in the Gartman plant, the lockout in the Gartman plant in March 1907 and the general town’s strike in July 1916 in the time of social-economics crisis during the First World War. The studying of strikes, attempts of
strikes and mass unrests in 1905–1907 and 1916 allows defining some features of collective’s activity of plant’s workers:
1) the inconsistent solidarity of workers in the times of strikes. The general understanding of oppressed status and necessity of fighting for their rights spread among the workers during the strike’s waves, but this solidarity of workers didn’t cause to cooperative planned activities;
2) the crisis of vertical relationships between administrators and workers in the time of strikes of 1905 and 1916. In Patron plant subordination and paternalism were saved during the strike in February 1905, unlike in Gartman plant, but not in the strike in 1916;
3) the influence on workers of the revolutionary movement. Revolution ideas and local activists of illegal political parties were impacted by workers’ moods in crisis times. In 1905 increasing of social-democrats’ activity in Luhans’k was the aftermath of the town’s strikes. But in 1916 the spreading of revolution
ideas preceded the emergence in workers’ dissatisfaction with their own situation during the social-economics crises, which was the cause of general town’s strike;
4) the workers’ capacity to spontaneous self-organization during strikes and making the continuous organization forms in the Gartman plant. In this enterprise in 1906 was formed two workers’ organizations: pawnshop and professional association. This association conflicted with the plant’s administration in 1907 and headed the strikes in 1906.

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Published

2017-10-30

How to Cite

Gauchman, M. (2017). WORKERS OF DISTRICT TOWN: THE PLANT’S WORKERS OF LUHANS’K IN LABOR’S CONFLICTS AND REVOLUTIONARY WAVES DURING THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR. City History, Culture, Society, (3), 51–72. https://doi.org/10.15407/mics2019.03.051