МETALLURGY CENTER XI – XII CENTURES IN VYSHGOROD HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RESERVE (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS, 1989)
Keywords:Old Rus, Vyshgorod, мetallurgy
For the first time, the author introduces materials for production complexes that were discovered during archaeological excavations in 1989 in the western part of the Vyshgorod post (Nizhny Dorohozhichi tract). The author states that their re-interpretation allows tracing almost all the basic stages of iron production and processing. This re-interpretation is essential because today there is no consensus among leading national specialists in the field of identifying a specific set of features that would be able to confidently interpret heat engineering devices and correlate them with the individual stages of iron production and processing.
The analysis of the existing ceramic complex allowed the author to conclude on the dating of the production complexes in the second half of the XI - the first half of the XII century. Dwellings in which smith metallurgists kept their instruments are also dated, indicating their synchronicity. The author notes that almost all workshops were moved to the periphery because of the fire danger - they were located in the western (near the big ravine) and northeast suburbs of the metallurgical centre. It is emphasized that pits for burning coal were arranged near the raw hollows. The author once again refutes the hypothesis about the separation of metallurgical and blacksmithing crafts and the exclusively rural nature of the metal industry, as opposed to the urban nature of metalworking.
It is noted that the vast majority of metallurgical furnaces had a relatively simple construction and relatively low production capacity, due to their small working volume. It is established that the range of metal products, which was presented among the materials of the excavations, is generally traditional for the ancient city. These are household items, handicrafts and agricultural implements, elements of the rider's weapons and equipment. The resident of one of the dwellings specialized in the manufacture of knives. However, as the author states, there were no metallographic analyzes that would determine the technological features of the Vyshgorod metal products from the 1989 excavations.
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