УРБАНІСТИЧНА АНТРОПОЛОГІЯ

  • Джуліана Б. Прато University of Kent, U.K.
  • Італо Пардо University of Kent, U.K.
Ключові слова: міська розмаїтість, етнографічна методологія, людська мобільність, регіональна розмаїтість, простір і місце, урбаністичні дослідження, урбанізм, урбанізація

Анотація

Стаття присвячена проблемі становлення та розвитку урбаністичної антропології, яку автори розглядають у контексті традиції соціокультурної антропології. Надано короткий огляд міждисциплінарних теоретичних основ становлення цієї субдисципліни, витоків антропологічного інтересу до процесів урбанізації, простежено основні віхи розвитку урбаністичної антропології та впливи на неї суміжних дисциплін. Проаналізовано комплекс методологічних і теоретичних викликів, що пов’язані з особливостями польової роботи в міському середовищі, а також нові напрямки антропологічних урбаністичних досліджень. Окреслено значення антропологічної парадигми у міських дослідженнях, її місце в академічних дискусіях та у суспільстві у цілому.

Автори доходять висновків, що свого часу усталений академічний поділ між дисциплінами призвів до того, що антропологи зосереджувалися на вивченні сільських спільнот або суспільств з племінним устроєм, тоді як місто не вважалося повноцінним полем для роботи. Урбаністика формувалася, передусім, у межах соціології, і хоча антропологи докладали зусиль для зміни ситуації, вивчення західних індустріальних суспільств довгий час залишалися поза межами академічного мейнстріму.

Сьогодні антропологи проводять дослідження у містах, адже вони є місцем проживання половини людства, центрами культурної та етнічної взаємодії, а також складними надбудовами, від яких залежить стабільній розвиток суспільства. Автори наголошують, що починаючи з 1990-х років, більшість антропологів визначають сферу докладання своїх зусиль як антропологічне дослідження в урбаністичних умовах, а не як “урбаністичну антропологію”. Серед актуальних тем – глобалізація, біотехнології та біоетика, нові репродуктивні технології, проблеми прав людини, легітимність тощо. Оскільки глобалізація і сучасний масштаб людської мобільності суттєво впливають на соціальний вимір, саме антропологія стає вкрай важливою для розуміння цих процесів, адже пропонує унікальний підхід, що базується на практичному досвіді, і досліджує, яким чином глобальні процеси позначаються на житті окремої людини і цілих спільнот на мікрорівні та в більш широкому контексті.

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Опубліковано
2017-06-07
Як цитувати
Б. Прато, Д., & Пардо, І. (2017). УРБАНІСТИЧНА АНТРОПОЛОГІЯ. City History, Culture, Society, (1), 11-43. https://doi.org/10.15407/mics2016.01.011
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Урбаністичні студії: світовий та український контексти