GORODNYA – KIEV DEFENSIVE WALLS IN IX-XIII CENTURIES. PART TWO. THALLUS

Authors

  • Vadym Lukyanchenko National Kyiv-Pechersk Historical and Cultural Preserve

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15407/mics2017.02.009

Keywords:

talus, Ancient Kyiv, defensive walls, earth embankment, thallus, throwing implements

Abstract

The article is a continuation of the author's research, which raises the question of the structural and functional features of the defence structures of the city of Kyiv in the IX-XIII centuries.

Based on the analysis of scientific literature, comprising of written and archaeological sources, and reconstructions of urban fortifications of a certain time, the author has proposed his scheme of construction evolution of derelict fortified structures of Ancient Rus. He states that: firstly, at the beginning of erection of earth shafts, their reinforcement was never performed, and secondly, the construction of shafts of complex type (reinforced) arose as a result of repeated repairs and restructuring of initially low timber fortifications, and thirdly, the complexity of fortifications. Only the duration of their active functioning was affected. Particular attention is paid to the construction of the defensive walls of the "city of Yaroslav" in Kyiv, the remains of which were found during archaeological excavations in 1952, 1971-1973, 1981 and 2001.
The author argues that in the timber walls of the "city of Yaroslavl" in the areas near the Golden and Liadsky gates and on the Maydan Nezalezhnosti, where vertical auxiliary lattice frames from the cages, which did not connect with the cages of the main structure of the fortification, were fixed - initially there was a thallus.
The gap between the main and the auxiliary structures should have prevented the transmission to the main array of dynamic loading walls from falling projectiles. The latter partly rebounded at the enemy, partially destroyed the hack itself, making it an additional obstacle for the attacking side.

Taking into account the presence in the defensive fortifications of the thallus, the author concludes that the defenders of the city used not only bows but also metal tools. The article hypothesizes that the material used in the IX-XIII centuries in Kyiv for the production of metal shells, there was unbaked moist clay from which balls of various sizes were made.

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Published

2017-10-23

How to Cite

Lukyanchenko, V. (2017). GORODNYA – KIEV DEFENSIVE WALLS IN IX-XIII CENTURIES. PART TWO. THALLUS. City History, Culture, Society, (2), 9–22. https://doi.org/10.15407/mics2017.02.009