TAPHOLOGY AS AN INTEGRAL ELEMENT OF MODERN THANATOLOGY. INFORMATIVE OPPORTUNITIES AND BASIC TERMS

Authors

  • Vsevolod Ivakin Institute of archaeology NASU

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15407/mics2020.11.057

Keywords:

thanatology, taphology, basic terminological apparatus, structure, complex research

Abstract

Issues related to such areas of archaeological thanatology as the perception of death by ancient man, the evolution of funeral traditions and rituals have always been topical, both at the dawn of humanity and today. The problems of taphology, the branch of thanatology that studies the field of human activity related to the burial of dead members of society, remain relevant in modern archaeological science. When studying the problems of funeral rites, the researcher must understand its structure, be able to operate with a terminological system, correctly choose the appropriate methods for the adequate reconstruction of particular funeral practice. Unfortunately, a clear taphological structure has not yet been defined in national science, attempts to unify the conceptual apparatus have been sporadic and have not led to the formation of a single system of the specialized vocabulary of terms.

This paper is an attempt to define the appropriate structure of the "science of burial" and to understand the terms that can be used in modern historical and archaeological sciences. Needless to say, the positive effects of studies in this area will at least help to avoid confusion in the names and concepts that are actively used in the study of funeral rites. Further development of the terminological apparatus will allow deepening the scientific and methodological aspects of studying the funeral rite as a unique process.

The main issues related to the theory of taphology and the creation of an appropriate terminological apparatus are widely analyzed in the works of such well-known experts as V. Alyokshin, V. Henning, V. Gulyaev, A. Dobrolyubsky, I. Kizlasov, G. Lebedev, V. Melnyk, V. Nazarenko, V. Olkhovsky, Yu. Smirnov, S. Tokarev. For the structural and terminological basis of the research, we have chosen a unified system of terms by Yu. Smirnov in a complex combination with the creative works of other above-mentioned researchers. The composition of the basic terms is preliminary and looks forward to future additions and improvements.

We consider this article as an invitation of specialists of different directions to the scientific discussion. The purpose of the discussion should be to determine a stable taphological structure and to create a terminological apparatus that can be used in modern historical and archaeological sciences in research related to funeral rites.

References

Akimova, L. I. (1990). Ob otnoshenii geometricheskogo stilja k obrjadu kremacii. In Issledovanija v oblasti balto-slavjanskoj duhovnoj kul’tury. Pogrebal’nyj obrjad (pp. 230–231). Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].

Alekshin, V. A. (1986). Social’naja struktura i pogrebal’nyj obrjad drevnezemledel’cheskih obshhestv. Leningrad: Nauka [in Russian].

Baranov, V., & Ivakin, V. (2019). Burials with Weaponry in the Ostriv Baltic Graveyard in the Middle Dnieper Area (excavated in 2017 and 2018). In ACTA HISTORICA (pp. 99–127). Klaipeda: Universitatis Klaipedensis.

Bertašius, M. (2016). Central Lithuanian Cemeteries. In Zabiela, G., Baubonis, & Z., Marcinkeviciute, E. (Eds.), A Hundred Years of Archaeological Discoveries in Lithuania (p. 234). Vilnius.

Bol’shaja sovetskaja jenciklopedija (Vol. 18, p. 266) (A. M. Prohorov, Ed.). Moskva: Sovetskaja Jenciklopedija [in Russian].

Dobroljubskij, A. O. (1982). O principah sociologicheskoj rekonstrukcii po dannym pogrebal’nogo obrjada. In Teorija i metody arheologicheskih issledovanij (pp. 54–68). Kiev: Naukova dumka [in Russian].

Efremov, I. A. (1954). Chto takoe tafonomija? Priroda, 3, 48–54 [in Russian].

Ellis Davidson, H. R. (1943). The Road to Hell. New York: Greenwood press.

Gamkrelidze, T. V., & Ivanov, V. V. (1984). Indoevropejskij jazyk i indoevropejcy. Rekonstrukcija i istoriko-tipologicheskij analiz prajazyka i protokul’tury (Book II). Tbilisi: Izdatel’stvo Tbilisskogo universiteta [in Russian].

Gening, V. F., Bunjatjan, E. P., Pustovalov, S. Zh., & Rychkov, N. A. (1990). Formalizovanno-statisticheskie metody v arheologii (Analiz pogrebal’nyh pamjatnikov). Kiev: Nauka [in Russian].

Guljaev, V. I. (1993). Pogrebal’nyj obrjad: struktura, semantika i social’naja interpretacija (vvedenie v diskussiju, chast’ I). Rossijskaja arheologija, 1, 76–77 [in Russian].

Hotko, B. S. (2001). Obrjad “vozdushnogo” pogrebenija v prostranstve jazycheskoj kul’tury abhazov i adygov. Vestnik adygejskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 1, 175–180 [in Russian].

Kabo, V. R. (1987). Pervonachal’nye formy religii. In Religii mira 1986 (pp. 136–154). Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].

Kyzlasov, I. L. (1993). Pogrebal’nyj obrjad i uroven’ razvitija obshhestva. Rossijskaja arheologija, 1, 98–112 [in Russian].

Kyzlasov, I. L. (1995). Pogrebal’nyj obrjad i uroven’ razvitija obshhestva. Rossijskaja arheologija, 2, 99–103 [in Russian].

Lebedev, G. S. (1970). Raznovidnosti obrjada truposozhzhenija v mogil’nike Birka. In Statistiko-kombinatornye metody v arheologii (pp. 180–190). Moskva [in Russian].

Lebedev, G. S. (1977). Pogrebal’nyj obrjad kak istochnik sociologicheskoj rekonstrukcii (Po materialam Skandinavii jepohi vikingov). Kratkie soobshhenija instituta arheologii, 148, 24–30 [in Russian].

Marks, K., & Jengel’s, F. (1961). Sochinenija (Vol. 20, p. 610). Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe izdanie politicheskoj literatury [in Russian].

Mejtarchijan, M. (2001). Pogrebal’nye obrjady zoroastrijcev. Moskva; Sankt-Peterburg: Letnij sad, 65–101.

Mel’nik, V. I. (1990). Pogrebal’naja praktika i pogrebal’nyj obrjad. Kratkie soobshhenija instituta arheologii, 201, 73–77 [in Russian].

Mel’nik, V. I. (1993). Pogrebal’nyj obychaj i pogrebal’nyj pamjatnik. Rossijskaja arheologija, 1, 94–97 [in Russian].

Mishalov, V. D., Khokholieva, T. V., Bachynskyi, V. T., Voichenko, V. V., Kryvda, H. F., & Kostenko, Ye. Ya. (2018). Sudova medytsyna. Pidruchnyk. Kyiv: Natsionalna medychna akademiia [in Ukrainian].

Montandon, G. (1934). L’ologenese culturelle. Paris: Payot.

Nazarenko, V. A. (1970). Klassifikacija pogrebal’nyh pamjatnikov Juzhnogo Priladozh’ja. In Statistiko-kombinatornye metody v arheologii (pp. 191–201). Moskva [in Russian].

Nekrasova, N. A., & Nekrasov, S. I. (2005). Mirovozzrenie kak ob#ekt filosofskoj refleksii. Sovremennye naukoemkie tehnologii, 6, 20 [in Russian].

Nikol’skij, V. K. (1923). Ocherk pervobytnoj kul’tury. Moskva; Petrograd: Izdanie L. D. Frenkelja [in Russian].

Ol’hovskij, B. C. (1986). Pogrebal’no-pominal’naja obrjadnost’ v sisteme vzaimosvjazannyh ponjatij. Sovetskaja arheologija, 1, 65–76 [in Russian].

Ol’hovskij, B. C. (1995). Pogrebal’naja obrjadnost’ i sociologicheskie rekonstrukcii. Rossijskaja arheologija, 2, 85–98 [in Russian].

Smirnov, Ju. A. (1985). Tafologija (Popytka sistemnogo podhoda). In Chelovek i okruzhajushhaja sreda v drevnosti i srednevekov’e (pp. 17–23). Moskva [in Russian].

Smirnov, Ju. A. (1997). Labirint: morfologija prednamerennogo pogrebenija. Issledovanie, teksty, slovar’. Moskva: Vostochnaja literatura [in Russian].

Smirnov, Ju. A. (1990). Morfologija pogrebenija (Opyt sozdanija bazovoj modeli). In Issledovanija v oblasti balto-slavjanskoj duhovnoj kul’tury. Pogrebal’nyj obrjad (pp. 216–224). Moskva [in Russian].

Smirnov, Ju. A. (1991). Must’erskie pogrebenija Evrazii. Vozniknovenie pogrebal’noj praktiki i osnovy tafologii. Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].

Smirnov, Ju. A. (1994). Nekotorye obshhie polozhenija teorii otrazhenija social’nogo statusa umershego v pogrebal’nom obrjade. Obshhie zamechanija. In Teorija i prikladnye metody v arheologii (pp. 16–24). Saratov: Izd-vo Saratovskogo universiteta [in Russian].

Sturluson Snorri. (1980). Krug zemnoj. Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].

Tokarev, S. A. (1965). Religija v istorii narodov mira. Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].

Tokarev, S. A. (1964). Rannie formy religii i ih razvitie. Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].

Tokarev, S. A. (1980). Obychai i obrjady kak ob#ekt jetnograficheskogo issledovanija. Sovetskaja jetnografija, 2, 26–36 [in Russian].

Tolstoj, N. I. (Red.). (1995). Slavjanskie drevnosti. Jetnolingvisticheskij slovar’ (Vol. 1. A–G, p. 386). Moskva: Mezhdunarodnye otnoshenija [in Russian].

Tolstoj, N. I. (Red.). (2009). Slavjanskie drevnosti. Jetnolingvisticheskij slovar’. (Vol. 4. P–S, p. 11). Moskva: Mezhdunarodnye otnoshenija [in Russian].

Zybkovec, V. F. (1956). Opyt interpretacii must’erskih pogrebenij. Voprosy istorii religii i ateizma, 4, 112–113 [in Russian].

Zybkovec, V. F. (1959). Doreligioznaja jepoha. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo AN SSSR [in Russian].

Published

2021-02-10

How to Cite

Ivakin В. (2021). TAPHOLOGY AS AN INTEGRAL ELEMENT OF MODERN THANATOLOGY. INFORMATIVE OPPORTUNITIES AND BASIC TERMS. City History, Culture, Society, (11 (4), 57–77. https://doi.org/10.15407/mics2020.11.057

Issue

Section

Historiography and Methodology

Most read articles by the same author(s)