Місто: історія, культура, суспільство. Е-журнал урбаністичних студій / Інститут історії України НАН України, Історичний факультет Київського національного університету імені Тараса Шевченка; редкол.: Мирослав Борисенко (гол. ред.), Тетяна Водотика (шеф-редактор). – Київ, 2018. № 1 (5). – 251 с.
Early Modern City
The research of the defensive structures of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra includes many important aspects requiring serious architectural, archaeological and bibliographic research. Among of them the question of the stages of their construction and the evolution of the building. In the article is described assumption about the initial functional purpose of the premises of the South Tower, Onufriyivsky tower and Ivan Kashnikov tower, not only for the rifles firing during combat operations but also for the guard of residence. For the first time is presented a reconstruction of some sections of the monastery walls and the Kashnikov tower in the initial construction period.
Keywords: Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra, monastery walls.
Andriy Sapronov. Regimental Prison In Hetmanate: Appearance and Condition of Building in the Middle of the 18th Century
The article attempts to investigate a condition of the buildings for the prisoners and guardians in the middle of the XVIII century in the regimental prisons of the Hetmanate and in Hlukhiv. The prison was an important public building in the early modern towns. Good condition of the walls of the jail was a guarantee of successful punishment for the thieves and the prevention of new offences.
In the legal sources (in the Statutes of Lithuania and in the Laws by Which the Little Russian People Are Judged), there are three types of places where prisoners could be held – the “lower” and “upper” prisons and a separate room for convicted prisoners. The appearance of prisons in domestic historiography is poorly researched and untold. The studies indicate that various types of buildings were used as a prison, such as a hut, a shed. However, sometimes researchers mentioned the prisons with a binary structure (upper and lower).
Typically, in criminal proceedings, the appearance of prisons was not reported. If the court session ended successfully, that is the punishment of the thief, then the description of the prison in the document was unnecessary. Therefore, the author used the materials, which illustrated the cases of escapes from the prisons. In addition to them, the researcher used the documents of the regimental offices, in which they requested permission from the capital authorities to carry out repair works.
As a result of the study, it was found that the prisons of the regimental cities and Hlukhiv in the middle of the XVIII century usually consisted of a prison, an upper (1-2 huts) and a lower jail and a building for security. Sometimes houses of local residents were used to hold the prisoners. Regardless of the location of criminals, prisoners regularly suffered from weather (cold, snow, rain). Not much better were the conditions for service in the guardians of the prisoners.
Natural factors constantly destroyed wooden structures, even in the absence of fires. The fence around the prison and its walls over time were rubbed and criminals were given the opportunity to escape. It is worth noting that the construction became much more unusable due to constant attempts to escape criminals. The practice of partial repair of prisons could not solve the problem and for some time again there was a need to upgrade the institution.
According to the author, there were three ways of providing materials for the construction or repair of prisons. In the first case, resources were taken from the residents of the regiment on the basis of distribution, which was conducted by the regimental office with the consent of the capital authorities. In the second – the money from the treasury was used only for those materials that were not in the inhabitants of the regiment. The third option for carrying out repair works was that the state treasury assumed the funds for the purchase of all materials.
Keywords: Hetmanate, regimental cities, jail, prisoners, prison.
Nazarii Levus. Representative Spendings of the Magistrate in 1577-1583. On the Example of Lviv Weekly-Expenditures Books
From 1577 till 1583 years from the city’s cash desk of Lviv was allocated money to purchase wine, fish, jewellery and eastern goods. Most of the purchased items were gifts for city delegations to the Diet, the royal court in Lublin, expenses on travel to the highest governments of the Commonwealth and the greetings of the latter during their stay in Lviv. This article attempts to demonstrate how city officials with the help of gifts (i.e.wine and other things) managed to promote and protect their interests in the Diet with the assistance of city patrons and local representatives. In addition, it was found that some Lviv officials maintained close ties with the officials of the Commonwealth and, with the help of gifts and representative spending, influenced the position and status of their city.
Keywords: early modern era, Commonwealth, early modern Lviv, city council, city spending, Diet, gift, wine, Paweł Szczerbic.
Andriy Zayats. Landvogts in the Volhynian Towns of the 16th and the First Half of the 17th Centuries: Composition, Personalities, Functions
Landvogt in the Volhynian played a significant role because very often he was a substitute of the Vogt, performed judicial and other functions of public administration. Usually, landvogt received his position as a remuneration for the auxiliary service to the Vogt or took it out for rent or bail. Landvogt kept order in the town and monitored moral standards, sometimes he was instructed to collect debts from the townspeople. According to their social and national origin, the landvogts were mostly local burgers, although there were Polish noblemen among them. There were cases of the combination of posts: both of landvogt and councillor/burgomaster. Landvogts stayed in office from several months to many years. Because landvogts had in their hands’ considerable power, they sometimes abused it.
Keywords: landvogt, Vogt, Magdeburg law, town, burghers, Volhynia.
Modernization in Cities in late XIX-early XX centuries
Andriy Zayarnyuk. Off-Year Parliamentary Elections 1908: Notes To The Biography Of Mykola Hankevich And History Of Socialist Movement In Lviv
The article examines the figure of Mykola Hankevich in the context of the extraordinary parliamentary elections of 1908 in Galicia. The features of the electoral system of the Habsburg Empire, the picture of the political struggle in the early twentieth century, as well as the personal role of Mykola Hankevich are presented. His personal qualities, role and place in the political struggle of the then Galicia, existing contacts and significance for various political forces are analyzed. The features of holding elections in the beginning of the 20th century in Galicia are revealed
Keywords: Mykola Hankevich, Habsburg Empire, Galicia, parliamentary elections 1908.
Volodymyr Kulikov. Informal Labor Relations Within The Industrial Enterprises Of The Late Russian Empire
The article presents a study of informal labour relations within the industrial enterprises of the Russian Empire based on materials from the Dnieper-Donets region during the period 1870–1917. The analysis is based on narrative writings created by the entrepreneurs and workers as primary sources, supplemented by analytical data collected by the zemstvo and state commissions. The article demonstrates that informal labour relations took various forms such as informal employment, manipulation with the workers’ wages, requiring and performing activates which were not listed in the employment contract, and corruption. The combination of mutual benefits and risks for the main stakeholders determined the system of informal labour relations. The omnipresence of these informal practices was due to the ignorance of both the employees and the employers concerning the relevant legislation. Inefficient state control over labour law also contributed to the expansion of informal institutions.
During the last quarter of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, formal practices dislodged some informal variations. It happened due to the modernization of the work ethic on both the workers’ and the industrialists’ side, the strengthening of the regulatory and controlling role of the state, and, most importantly, the organizational changes within the industrial enterprises. The rise of large modern industrial enterprises with a hierarchy of salaried managers demanded a system of new, more formal labour relations between the employers and employees. However, the formalization of labour relations in the industrial enterprises in Russia was not a linear process. Some informal practices proved to be very viable and have survived to-date.
Keywords: informal labour relations, informal economy, informal employment, the Donbas, Late Russian Empire.
1917-1921. Revolution in the City
Interview with Vladislav Verstyuk, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of History of the Ukrainian Revolution, Institute of History of Ukraine, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
In Soviet historical science during 1960s-1980s a traditional stereotype of perception of the cruiser “Almaz” as “Southern Aurora” was formed, which had to symbolize similar tendencies of the revolutionary progress in 1917- 1918 in Baltic and the Black Sea Fleets. The role of the steamship crew in events of the Russian and the Ukrainian revolutions in a limited period of time is analyzed in the article.
In January 1918, the Bolshevist armed insurrection took place in Odesa, active participation in the preparation of which was played by the part of sailors and officers of the cruiser “Almaz”. During the existence of the Odesa Soviet republic, new authorities used the practice of the “red” terror, the symbol of which was “Almaz”. As the result of the detention and physical liquidation of people of various categories on the cruiser and at moorings of other warships, thus spreading a variety of rumours, authorities of local self-government attempted to take control of the situation in order to make facts of self-trial impossible. But judicial and investigational institutions were able to investigate the circumstances of the detention of prisoners and their subsequent fate fully only after the restoration of the Ukrainian National Republic governance in Odesa. Their conclusions dispel the heroic image of the cruiser created by Soviet historiography.
Keywords: revolution, UPR, Оdesa, the Bolsheviks, «red» terror, cruiser «Almaz», city council, Odesa Ukrainian City Council.
Modern Transformations of Urban Space
Alexander Musin. Historical Memory In Urban Space: Paradoxes Of Church And Political Reconstruction Of National Holy Places In Russia And Ukraine
The article gives an analysis of the history of the reconstruction and building of iconic churches of Ukraine and Russia: the Church of the Tithes, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, the Dormition Cathedral of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra and the St. Michael’s Golden-Domed Monastery, which are national shrines. The author offers the method of understanding of socio-political queries and evolution of historical memory embodied in architectural images and restoration ideas. It is substantiated that the process of reconstruction of destroyed temples reflects not so much to the religious renaissance in Eastern Europe, as the interests of the state and politicians in manipulating historical memory. An important factor is the interests of business and the ambitions of the creative intelligentsia. There is a contradiction between the ideology of reproduction as a new construction in the historic sense and the principles of scientific restoration, whose purpose is to preserve the authenticity of the monument as a means of attaching to the past. The newly-created dominants roughly invade the urban landscape that emerged during the twentieth century and causes disillusionment among the public. Similar buildings are regarded as «novodel» and «simulacres» and conflict with the understanding of national history and religious needs. The differences in the process of reproduction of temples in Ukraine and Russia are emphasized at the level of conceptual ideas, interests, expected and real results. They are explained by the difference between Russian political monopoly and Ukrainian social corporatism. The concept of «symmetrical restoration» and the religious-confessional neutrality of places of national memory as a factor of maintaining public peace and tranquillity is proposed and substantiated.
Keywords: historical memory, restoration, restoration, urban environment, landscape dominant, society, religion, politics, confessional neutrality
Sources for the Urban History
The article deals with two privileges of the Polish king Stefan Batory for the Polissya town of Loyew (now the district centre of the Gomel region, the Republic of Belarus). In the 16th century, it was a part of the Liubech starostvo of the Kiev voivodship. The town is known first of all due to military battles that took place in the neighbourhood: July 31, 1649, and during the Second World War, while the pages of its history during the Lithuanian-Polish era, such as the granting of self-government under the Magdeburg law, are still little known.
Stefan Batory privileges for Loyew can be considered interesting and rare archival finds, they have not yet been published and introduced into scientific circulation. The first – the Magdeburg Law was granted on August 3, 1576, the second – on the Loyew Vogtship for Fedora Volka appeared as an addition to the first one in six years (November 25, 1582). Unlike most of the privileges of the time, inscribed in the books of the royal the chancellery, these two were not written in Latin or in Polish, but in Cyrillic. The documents originate from the Archives of the Sangushki princes, which are now stored in the State Archives of Poland in Krakow (Wawel department).
The initiator and recipient of the Magdeburg privileges for Loyew were Pavlo Ivanovych Sapiega, Lubeckij and Loyewsky Starosta from 1560, and the Kiev Castellan from 1566. He, at his own expense, built the city and the castle Loyew Mountain, that was lying on the Tartar road and defending the Lithuanian border from the Chernihiv side (which at that time belonged to the Moscow state), and was also protecting the state from the Tatar attacks. The privilege of the Loyew Vogts was granted in 1582 to Fedor Volk as the reward for his military service and participation in hostilities.
These documents are exceptional since during the reign of Stefan Batory (1576-1586) only a few cities in this region received similar privileges. The significance of royal privileges for Loyew was enormous – it was a necessary legal basis and a significant impetus for its further development. Residents of Loyew received self-government on the principles of Magdeburg Law and many economic privileges and liberties, which favourably distinguished them among other cities in the region.
Keywords: privileges, borderlands, Magdeburg Law, Vogt, king Stephen Bathory, Pavlo Sapieha, Loyew, Kyiv Voivodeship, the Liubech starostvo, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, XVI century.
The translation of Victor Hugo’s article first published in French: Hugo V. Guerre aux démolisseurs // Revue des Deux Mondes. Période Initiale. Tome 5. 1832. pp. 607– 622. The translation and the introductory article by Oleksandr Malyshev, PhD in law, Senior research fellow, V.M. Koretsky Institute of State and Law National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Olena Spytska. Administrative and Financial Activity of the Ukrainian Delegation Management at the Paris Peace Conference 1919-1920 from the Perspective of a New Historical Source
The article highlights some organizational activities which provided personnel and financial support for UPR delegation’s work in the Paris Peace Conference 1919–1920. This work consisted of efforts to gain UPR’s independence recognition by leading and others states of the world; to get them to take into consideration interests of the Ukrainian people, because of the postwar geopolitical changes in Central Europe; to cooperate in political, military, commercial and economic fields with other countries. It characterizes main directions of personnel part of this work – the dynamics in personnel changes, efforts to engage qualified specialists and technical workers, control over delegation members’ business trips, financial expenses aimed at executing tasks, which were given to the delegation.
Keywords: UPR, Paris, Conference, delegation, order.
Olga Redko. How Cities Experienced The Revolution? Documents from the Funds of Central State Archives of Supreme Bodies of Power and Government of Ukraine
Anastasia Bozhenko, Chorny Dmitry. “Language / Languages of Cities and Formation of Identity of Kharkiv Population (late 19th – Early 20th Century)”. (Kharkiv, February 23, 2018)
Natalia Otrishchenko. (In)Visible Traces: the Presence of the Recent Past in the Urban Landscape of Sarajevo
The author reflects on her observations during the summer school ‘History Takes Place – Dynamics of Urban Change.’ She discusses the number of locations, which embodied or recalled the memories of war and siege of the city, both those that remained from 1992-95 and those newly created. Based on the concept of the production of space, the article outlines the specifics of interventions into urban landscape with either monuments or alternative forms of commemoration.
Keywords: memory, monument, Sarajevo, siege, urban space.