From the megacities of Trypillya to department stores in the Soviet cities of the 1920-30s – we invite you to, as we hope, an interesting reading of Issue 4. A special topic this time – an early modern city.
Місто: історія, культура, суспільство. Е-журнал урбаністичних студій / Інститут історії України НАН України, Історичний факультет Київського національного університету імені Тараса Шевченка; редкол.: Мирослав Борисенко (гол. ред.), Тетяна Водотика (шеф-редактор). – Київ, 2017. № 2 (4). – 189 с.
Low-density Urbanism. What is it? An Interview with Bisserka Gaydarska and John Chapman (Durham University, Department of Archaeology, Durham, UK)
Danielewski Marcin. Gords and cities in Poland in the 13th century in the context of the then settlement changes
The presented article revolves around an important academic issue pertaining to the spatial and chronological relations in the gords and towns of the 13th century, operating in Poland in the then Piast duchies. As part of the considerations, selected examples of gords and towns have been presented from the specific historical countries (Greater Poland, Kuyavia, the Gdansk Pomerania, Masovia, Central Poland, Lesser Poland and Silesia) to illustrate the issues in question. At the same time, attempts have been made to refer these examples to models or spatial relations including towns and older settlement as presented by Marian Rębkowski. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the gords and towns in the 13th century often operated next to each other, fulfilling different functions, at the same time complementing each other.
Keywords: gords, cities, settlement changes, 13th century
Early Modern City
Tetiana Hoshko. The Vision Of The Childhood In The Codes Of The Urban Law In The Rzeczpospolita In XVI – Early XVII Century
Codes of Urban Law of the Rzeczpospolita of XVI – early XVII centuries reflected the evolution of ideas about childhood from the late Middle Ages to the early modern era. Although they refer to the legal norms of previous epochs, however, they contain many provisions that came under the influence of Humanism and the Reformation. As a result of deeper Christianization of morality at the turn of the Middle Ages and the New Age, a new attitude towards childhood appears, as to a special and important stage in human life. Therefore, as of the XVI century, in legal codes, there are special articles about children. City law begins to protect the interests of children by considering various aspects, in particular, the rights of the unborn but conceived child, the children of the «true bed», orphans, etc., the property interests of the child, his life and the future.
Keywords: Middle Ages, early modern era, Rzeczpospolita, stages of life, childhood, urban law, guardianship, adolescence, crime, punishment, pregnant woman, material interests of children, children of «true bed».
Igor Serdiuk. A Child And Mere Hireling In The Urban Society Of The Hetmanshyna In The Eighteenth Century
The article examines the use of hired child labour in the Hetman State society with an emphasis on its peculiarities inherent to the urban population. In general, the labour was the most important element of the socialization of the child at the time, and it worked “seriously”; its work was aimed precisely at the outcome but not at the process of work itself. This is the main difference from the present-day practices, and that is what made possible and allowed the widespread use of hired child labour, it was regarded not as an upbringing, but as a real contribution to the family economy.
The child could make a contribution to the family economy by working directly in the family economy, as well as by working beyond it. At the same time, many kinds of work done, its volume, character, etc. could be similar. At the same time, the work of the son of the artisan on the one hand and his pupil on the other, or the same daughter of the Cossack and his young tenant, bore distinctly different social contexts. Hired labour and apprenticeship meant having a child outside his own family and stated his mobility (within a single settlement or on a larger territory). Such labour migration of children and adolescents was an important part of the separation of the Hetman State city over its district. The concentration of people aged 10-14, and most notably of 15-19 years increased in its population in comparison with villages. Cities offered more variations of the rewards. They had more variety of vacancies and job offers specifically for minors. By concentrating economic and human resources, the Hetman State city gave an opportunity to find work somewhere close to their homes. The child could change the owners several times, but without leaving that same settlement. In rural areas, such migrations took place from farm to farm, or between villages. This state of affairs created a system of competition between the hirelings for good work and between employers for the good hirelings. The mechanisms of such competition, as well as inequality and discrimination related to the work of children, are the problem of a separate study.
The city’s advantages are inseparable from its dangers because the social capital acquired by young minors could be negative and extend to the whole family. The presence of migrants, the travelling and marginalized elements, the soldiers on the posts – all of these, typically urban phenomena, gave birth to the demand for prostitution, in which young girls were involved. The boys could be involved in the theft of livestock and things, to fend for fleeing, to steal for service. In this case, the families of hired children not only did not benefit from the earnings of their descendants, but also suffered from the use of equipment, had to pay for the damage, and so on. Despite these dangers, the city of Hetman State attracted young people.
When exploring hired labour in the early modern days, it is worth abandoning the Soviet approach, which considers it mainly as one-sided operation. At present, the most productive is the concept of life cycle service or life cycle servanthood. From this point of view, the service of the house (in Ukrainian historiography labelled with the concept of “hiring” (Ukr. ‘naymy’, ‘naymytuvannya’) does not appear as something permanent, accomplished, but as one of the stages of human life, an important component of its socialization. It is considered not only as a consequence of poverty but as a certain fuse from this phenomenon, which allowed to survive elementarily, to obtain a certain social capital, to acquire some material resources necessary for the transition to the next stage of the life cycle.
Keywords: Hetmanshyna, child, life cycle, hired labourer, labour, servant.
The article deals with the surnames and names of the Pereyaslav craftsmen. The analysis of personal names was made on the basis of the General Description of Left-bank Ukraine or Rumyantsev Register, conducted in 1766. The masters of 19 professions lived at those days in the city. Surnames of Ukrainian burghers were only fixed in the second half of the 18th century. All names of persons in Rumiantsev Register from Pereyaslav were two-lettered.
According to the lexical-semantic basis, the surnames caт be divided into six groups:
– surnames by occupation type (25,6 %);
– anroponymic surnames by Christian name (24 %);
– surnames on individual signs of a person (21,8%);
– surnames formed on the basis of different household names (12,8%);
– surnames formed on the basis of animals, fish, insects (8,5%);
– surnames by toponyms or ethnonyms (4,5%).
The first group was dominating. The surnames of craftsmen more depended on the profession, than surnames of other urban residents. In addition to cases where the first principle is interpreted unambiguously, they directly pointed out the artistic occupation of the carrier or represented the professional appellatives fixed in the second generation. A group of masters, who bared a professional surname, but not of their speciality, was outlined. Most of them were butchers and tailors, and the least among this group were fullers and bonders. The surname, which at first glance is directly related to the production activity, could be fixed to the owner for other reasons. For example, a person did not produce goods but traded in them.
The names of all the Pereyaslav craftsmen were based on the Christian calendar name. The most common name is Ivan (12.7%). The prevalence of the names Kuzma and Demyan, who, by some ethnographers, could be holy patrons of shoemaker’s guild, was also considered. In 1766 foreigners were not registered among the Pereyaslav craftsmen.
Keywords: craft, craftsman, Pereyaslav, Hetmanschyna, guild, master, Rumiantsev Register, 1766, surname, name.
Sokyrko Oleksii. Cities, Fortresses, Garrisons. Fortification And Defense Strategies In The Cossack Hetmanate In The «Militariy Revolution» Period
Changes in the Early Modern military technologies have fundamentally affected the transformation in urban space: fortifications, planning, the lifestyle of the inhabitants. At the same time, the development of new defence fortresses and the modernization of the old ones, the providing it by garrisons and artillery have become important elements of state policy. All these innovations were part of the «military revolution» in Europe. Its features in this had an important place in Eastern European states among them and the Cossack Hetmanate.
The theatre of military operations on which the main enemy for a long time were the Tatars had led to the fact that most fortifications were wood-earthen. However, the development of firearms gradually forced to abandon brick and wooden fortifications of the frontal type. They were supplemented with elements of Western European fortification (bastions and ravelins), which increased the firepower of the fortress and its defensive capacity.
At the same time, the Hetmanate did not have sufficient resources for largescale reconstructions of fortresses and the maintenance of permanent garrisons in them. The combination of these factors led to the fact that in the XVIII century fortification building in the Cossack Hetmanate passed into the hands of Russia and began to use in the interests of the Empire.
Keywords: Cossack Hetmanate, the «Military Revolution», fortress, fortification, garrisons.
Modernization Processes in The City: Imperial And Soviet Discourses
Taras Samchuk. Dwelling and Living Conditions of The Students Of St. Volodymyr University (1834-1863)
The article highlights the features of the living conditions of the students of St. Volodymyr University for 1834-1863 years. The types of habitats of two main students’ groups (who were educated and maintained by the state and students who studied at their own expense) are analyzed in the article. The habitats of students who were educated and maintained by the state were comfortable for students living and had a proper level of living conditions in general. At the same time, these habitats served as a form of control over university students. The habitats of students who studied at their own expense were significantly different in terms of living conditions. Students usually settled near university buildings and formed a compact quarter, mostly inhabited by university students. The features of the living conditions of students (heating, lighting, water supply, sanitary and hygienic conditions) are also described in the publication.
Keywords: students, University of st. Volodymyr, habitation, living conditions.
Vira Trach. Hygienic Periodicals and The Shaping of Discourse Of Public Health In Lviv At The Beginning Of The Twentieth Century
During the nineteenth century socio-political and economic transformations, as well as scientific discoveries, changed views on health and its value. Also, the concept of public health, which was no longer concentrated on the individual but on a group of people, was included in the sphere of interest of the broader strata of society in the Central and Eastern Europe. The hygienic movement occupied an important modernizing segment in a wide range of social movement and had an influence on changes in urban space during the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. Cleanliness and health became signs of modern city and civilization.
More noticeable public interest to hygienic ideas in Lviv emerged in the late nineteenth-early twentieth century. One of the manifestations of this was the emergence of hygienic periodicals that focused on issues of public health issues, and especially hygiene, covered almost all areas of everyday life – hygiene of clothing, nutrition, school an urban hygiene etc. At the first time, such journal was published in Lviv during 1872. Four periodicals dedicated to hygiene were published in the city in the period between 1902 and 1914. The publishing of all these periodicals was a non-profit enterprise, and editors were constantly looking for financial resources to ensure their existence. In the first place, the initiative of publishing belonged to Ukrainian and Polish doctors. Lviv hygienic periodicals were published in Polish and Ukrainian and were addressed to the respective national communities. They discussed the same issues, spread the same ideas, but focused mostly on Polish or Ukrainian readers, reflected the socio-political ideas of that time and integrated the concept of health into the competitive ideas of national development.
Keywords: public health, hygiene, hygienic periodicals, Lviv.
In the article, the features of department stores as trade establishments in Soviet Ukraine in 1920-1930s are examined. Department store is investigated as a unique space of urban consumption. It got the special place in ideology and propaganda and “fixed the victories and advantages of Soviet cultural trade”, the democratization of consumption. In urban space, department stores became the symbol of novelty, sufficiency and example for other trade institutions. Special attention is given to the transition in public discourse the image from “customer” to “consumer” during 1920-1930s. The innovativeness of univermags let to the use of modern tendencies in the arrangement of space, in particular, window displays and counters. It has been analyzed how department stores were equipped according to the last requirements of time with the help of mechanical devices and refrigeration units. It has been concluded that state department stores could have become a model of successful Soviet management and marketing in the field of trade. Nevertheless, it was not enough to create a properly equipped store space, because consumer and department store was in dependence from the ideological and economic policies of Soviet authorities. At the same time, the opening of department stores became a new stage in the development of Soviet trade, where the consumer could have become the main actor of these processes. However, in spite of this fact, during 1920-1930s a “new Soviet consumer” with its culture and consumption practices was created.
Keywords: department store, city, consumption, Soviet society, 1920-1930s, Ukraine.
Soboleva Olena. MILITARY SIGNIFICANT CONDITIONS OF MILITARY TIME. Review of the monograph by Oksana Ovsiyuk “Life after the Occupation: The Life of Kyiv in 1943 – 1945”. Kyiv: “Duliby”, 2017
Olena Onohda. REVIEW OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNESCO SUMMER SCHOOL “MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF HISTORICAL CITIES”, 28.08-2.09.2017, LUBLIN
Myroslava Hartmond. Review of the exhibition “FALLEN. Revolution – Propaganda – Iconoclasm” 16 September – 4 November 2017
Dinara Loktionova. SECOND GERMAN-UKRAINIAN CONFERENCE ON CITY DEVELOPMENT “CITIES FOR COMFORT FOR LIFE” (Lviv, January 1, 2017)