The second issue of the ‘City: History, Culture, Society’ appeared to be very multitopical. But the one topic dominates – ‘Decommunization and the City’. Most of the articles are devoted to this hard and sometimes painful problem. There also texts, touching upon Urban Archaeology, City in Modernization, and Urban Ecology.
Researchers of the architectural image of ancient Kyiv include many important aspects that require significant archaeological and bibliographic research. Among of them one of the most important questions is the structural and functional features of the defensive structures of the capital of Kievan Rus. The article reviewed the more common opinion about the broad development of fortifications of earthen ramparts with inner wooden structure in Kievan Rus in the X-XIII centuries. The author claims that in the wooden-defensive walls of the «city of Yaroslav» in Kiev in areas near the Zolotye and Lyadskie Gates, was arranged fracture as an extension base of the wall, that known in the stone architecture of Western Europe as the talus. The author firstly puts forward a hypothesis about material for producing throwing shells in Kiev on IХ-ХІІІ century.
Keywords: Ancient Kyiv, defensive walls, earthen ramparts, talus, throwing shells.
SERHIY TARANENKO, SERHIY GORBANENKO, OLEKSANDR KOVALCHUK, LEONID GOROBETS, MARYNA SERGEYEVA, PAVLO PUTSHKOV. INTEGRATED BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH DURING THE EXCAVATIONS IN KYIV-PECHERSK RESERVE IN 2016
The results of complex bio-archaeological definitions from archaeological research in 2016 (excavation 1, construction 1) on the territory of the National Kyiv-Pechersk Historical and Cultural Reserve are represented in this paper. Using the method of flotation, a small amount of palaeoethnobotanical material (leguminous plants, and millet), as well as anthracological remains (charcoal of pine and oak, indeterminate deciduous trees), was obtained. Using the screen-washing of the soil, fish remains were obtained; these bones have belonged to Russian sturgeon, common bream, northern pike and common perch. The bigger remains of mammals (cattle, sheep or goat, and pig) and birds (domestic goose and chicken) were obtained through the ‘classic’ way (i.e., during the excavations).
Thus, the obtained data characterizing the diet of the holder of the construction 1 were obtained. However, it is not possible to specify the proportion of specific products in this diet at this stage of our research. It can be only concluded that they were quite ordinary, so its appearance should be caused by the acquisition of finished food; such result was probably not associated with the economic activity of cultivation of these products.
Keywords: Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, flotation, screen-washing, paleobotany, archaeozoology.
ANASTASIYA BOZHENKO. MERCHANTRY VS NOBILITY: KHARKIV ELITE IN THE SECOND HALF OF XIX – THE EARLY XX CENTURY.
The article attempts to trace the action of Pareto principle on the example of Kharkiv city elite in the second half of XIX – the early XX century. We had researched the participation of nobles and merchants in city government. Unlike the previous period, the authority of merchants lost its monopoly, because the group of nobles and intelligence was formed, which created some contradiction and mutual control. In the area of the economic capital, merchantry was in the first place, becoming the base for the young entrepreneurial class. The specific feature of this period became the change of marriage strategy of merchants. If in the previous period they tried to have relatives among nobles to receive the title and social status, then after reforms they chose the future members of the family according to their financial position. At the same moment, nobles replenished the rows of intellectuals and were the first in the sphere of cultural capital while merchantry did not take this capital in its hands, continuing to be the unprivileged estate in social imagining.
Keywords: Pareto principle, Merchantry, nobility, city community.
This article claims that not only was the total urban population of the Ukrainian provinces greater in reality than indicated in the 1897 imperial census, but that the mass migration of Ukrainian peasants at the turn of the century into cities and, in particular, smaller towns, meant that the degree of Ukrainians’ urbanization should not be underestimated nor the degree of their political russification exaggerated. It argues, first, that the urban population figures in the 1897 census must be re-calculated because the then official category ‘urban’ did not include all de facto urban settlements. And second, that a detailed critical re-examination of all available pre-war statistics not using the official definitions will probably indicate more Ukrainians in towns on the eve of 1917 than shown by the official data.
Keywords: city, Ukrainians, 1897 census, urbanization, russification
NATALIA BARANOVSKA, MIHOYASHY YUKIKO. CITIES AND THEIR RESIDENTS AFTER A RADIATION ACCIDENT (KYIV AND FUKUSHIMA CASES)
On the basis of archival materials and other sources, authors show the situation in Kiev after the accident at the 4th reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear plant in April 1986. Contrary to the official point of view that the city was spared from the radioactive emissions from the destroyed reactor, the prevailing situation was tense. Under conditions of Ukraine being a part of the USSR the government’s actions caused mistrust and discontent. The largely similar process took place in 2011 in Fukushima after the accident at the nuclear power plant. Incomplete processes of combating the accidents at nuclear power plants in Ukraine and Japan and the likelihood of similar accidents elsewhere make the experience of Kiev priceless for Fukushima as well as the rest of the world.
Keywords: accident at a nuclear power plant, consequences, actions of the government, Kyiv, Fukushima, ecology, medicine, immigrants.
OLENA ZAJCHENKO. GAMIFICATION OF MUSEUM SPACE IN THE ASPECT OF TYPOLOGY OF BEHAVIOR OF MUSEUM VISITOR
The tendency of modern museum dramaturgy is the transformation of him from a “museum boredom” (determination of Т.S. Shola) to attractivity of “living museum”. Overall, history over of research of behavior of museum visitor is brought, and a typology over of museum visitors is brought and analyzed. The prospect of gamification of museum space hatches.
Keywords: game, museum space, gamification, attractivity, creativity, transformation
JARYNA ZAJSHLJUK, IGOR STAREN’NYJ. COMMUNIZATION AND DE-COMMUNIZATION OF TOPONYMY IN KAMYANETS’-PODIL’S’KY
The article tells about change on toponymy map in Kamyanets’-Podil’s’ky for 20-year ХХ – begin ХХІ century. Within 20 years, most microtoponyms that do not fit into the ideological system of the Communist Party were renamed – it was given the name of party and military leaders of the USSR, the ideologists of the communist movement. In 30 years of these objects were renamed due to the unprecedented scale repressive movement and different kinds of executions of Soviet leaders. After the war Communization toponymy held mainly by the new street names, instead of renaming existing ones. Since the beginning of the collapse of the Soviet Union and the loss of dominance of the Communist Party ideology starts reverse process – decommunization. The primarily old name was returned to the historic streets of Kamyanets’-Podil’s’ky in 1990 over 1992-1995. De-communization held by renaming streets of the new city, which bore the names of communist leaders. The new round of decommunization associated with the Revolution of dignity and the Law of Ukraine «On the condemnation of Communist and National Socialist (Nazi) totalitarian propagation and ban their symbols.» During this period, toponymic objects included in the list of those subject decommunization given new names. If the situation Kamyanets’-Podil’s’ky, streets, and lanes provided the names of the dead patriots during the Revolution of dignity and the Russian-Ukrainian war in Eastern Ukraine.
Keywords: Kamyanets’-Podil’s’ky, toponymy, microtoponym, renamed, decommunization, the Law of Ukraine.
SERGIY VODOTYKA, LYUDMILA SAVENOK. URBAN SPACE, DECOMMUNISATION AND THE PROBLEMS OF HISTORICAL MEMORY
The author analyzes the changing of toponymical urban space of Kherson what was a result of the implementation of so-called decommunization laws (adopted by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in 2015 as the Euromaidan echo). This process reflects the multi-local historical memory Kherson consisting Great imperial, Soviet (the dominant) and the Ukrainian National layers. Prominent attention authors devote to the process of forming historical memory through the prism of the main stages of its history. The authors argue that in its first 20th anniversary, despite it’s far from desirable for Empire geographical location, was not only military shipbuilding center in the south of the empire. Kherson also served as a kind of showcase of New Russia. However, this period in the history of the city led to further establishing of the imperial-Soviet layer in historical memory. Therefore, there is still the dominant anti-Ukrainian layer of historical memory in the mind of the average resident of the city. Decommunisation process should create conditions for the development of national Ukrainian historical memory, to which should be involved local public authorities, public bodies, experts, and historians.
Keywords: urban space, Kherson, toponymy, decommunization, local historical memory.
In the article, the author has analyzed a practical application of the Ukrainian Law “On Denouncing the Communist and the National-Socialist (Nazi) Totalitarian Regimes in Ukraine and Banning the Propaganda of their Symbols” on the example of Kharkiv-city urbanonims renaming.
The transformation of Kharkiv toponymy was highlighted retrospectively. The main mass renaming of the city streets that had occurred in 1894 and 1936 were characterized. It was found that an urban place-network organizing and getting rid of numerous repetitions had become the main purpose of renaming in 1894. The renaming of 1936 aim was to change an urban cultural space in accordance with the Bolshevik ideology.
The main attention in the article was given to the process of Kharkiv-city toponymy decommunization during 2015‒2016. Participation of civil society in the renaming project making as well as cooperation of local government with the state authorities was highlighted. Lists of toponymic changes proposed by local government and Kharkiv Regional State Administration were analyzed. The general trends and approaches in toponimic policy of local government and Kharkiv Regional State Administration were determined. There were founded the basic sources of urbanonims nomination and graphically represented their quantitative composition. The first two stages of the city toponym ydecommunization were conducted by the session decision of the Kharkiv City Council and the City Mayor H. Kernes order. Analysis of renamed urbanonims array showed a tendency to conservation of existing toponomic landscape. That was appeared in a number of pseudo-renaming. The process of decommunization was completed by the decision of the Head of Kharkiv Regional State Administration. Names of contemporary Ukraine heroes, fighters for Ukrainian statehood in the 20th century, and symbolic names had obvious advantage in this list of renaming.
Keywords: decommunization, renaming, urbanonim, Kharkiv, local government, civil society, state authorities.
Following Maidan-2014 and subsequent political changes, the processes of de-communization in Ukraine have considerably accelerated and received the new impetus. The Parliament adopted a number of laws and legal acts concerning toponyms, monuments and memorials, communist symbols, etc. that were to be removed from public spaces. The new legislation applied equally to open public spaces of the cities and villages (streets, squares, piazzas, public parks) and to the spaces of public use (municipal and government buildings, museums, underground stations, universities, schools, etc.). Leaving certain lacunas (e.g. using communist symbols in mass consumerist culture) and not clearly specifying the ways and means the laws were to be implemented, the parliamentary acts gave way to numerous conflicts and misunderstandings, when the incessant confrontations with a painful past shape political attitudes. Furthermore, these processes call for re-conceptualizing the ways the past is set into the work of memory and represented in the city spaces. In the same breadth, it resulted in largely spontaneous, even hectic application of the provisions, and remains the contentious issue for the public, experts and local authorities alike. On one hand, we see démontage, removal or dismantling/ demolition of the objects that the experts tend to see as a part of cultural or historic heritage, but which so far are not listed or assigned as such. While on the other hand, it works towards complete ignorance from the part of local authorities if not setting the conflicts between local communities. The paper will look at certain cases and practices of ‘de-communization’ in Ukrainian cities and analyze its pro-s and contra-s.
Keywords: decommunization, deconstruction, memory in urban spaces, monument, historic monument/heritage, symbolic landscape.
SERHII HUMENNYI. INFLUENCE OF SOVIETIZATION AND DECOMMUNISATION ON THE ARCHITECTURAL LOOK OF CITIES AND TOWNS IN TERNOPIL REGION (ON THE EXAMPLE CITY OF TERNOPIL, AND ZALISHCHYKY, TOWN OF SKALA-PODILSKA) IN 1939 – THE BEGINNING OF XXI CENTURY
The article discusses actualized novelty for Ukrainian historiography, the problem of the impact of sovietization of the urban environment of the modern urban settlements of the Ternopil region: cities Ternopil and Zalishchyky, town of Skala-Podilska. This article highlights the issue of research of the causes and the process of the disappearance of the characteristic architectural complexes, historical monuments and religious places of worship due to ideological, repressive and socio-economical policy of the Soviet regime in 1939–1991. It was made an emphasis on the premises of the formation of a multi-cultural environment of the cities of Eastern Galicia, its evolution in mononational cities influenced Sovietization of Western Ukraine, the genocide of the Jews during the Second World War. Separately it was drawn an attention to the restoration or reconstruction of destroyed monuments, elimination of totalitarian symbols in the process of decommunisation in 1991– early XXI century.
Keywords: Eastern Galicia, Tarnopol (Ternopil), Zalishchyky, Skala on the river Zbruch (Skala-Podilska), 1939–1991, sovietization, urban environment, decommunisation.
TETIANA KAROYEVA. ABSTRACT OF PRACTICAL ACTIVITY OF A WORKGROUP ON «DECOMMUNIZATION» OF PUBLIC AREA OF THE TOWN OF VINNYTSIA: HISTORIAN’S VIEW
The article deals with practical activity of the workgroup created in order to administer the Law of Ukraine «On condemnation of totalitarian regimes in Ukraine and prohibition of propaganda of their insignia» within the town of Vinnytsia. The workgroup had to reveal objects containing communist and Soviet insignia that exist in the public urban area, to work out advices and propositions as to replacing town toponyms containing insignia of communist totalitarian regime with new names. The article content is arranged in the following blocks: a) creation of the workgroup; b) decision-making algorithm (from historians’ point of view); c) scientific grounds of historian group activity; d) selection of objects for further discussion; e) procedure of discussion of proposed new toponyms. Six historians residing in Vinnytsia were introduced into the workgroup. They belong to various generations and represent both governmental and public organizations. The following principles have been defined for organizing of the historian group activity:
– toleration (provides for respectful attitude towards various canons of historic memory except for Soviet-communist one);
– historicism (due regard to be paid not only to the past but to current tendencies and challenges of the future as well);
– education (the activity has to promote dialogs between various social groups and formation of unified collective memory);
– local topicality with a view to formation of unified image / brand of the town.
Several approaches to practical activity on replacing of toponyms have been developed in order to ensure smooth work process. They were intended to be used simultaneously or in sequence depending on actual situation but every proposal was concerned from the proposed standpoints in line with all the following approaches:
– historicity (provides for restoration of historical names of places and implementation of historical and urban practical methods of representation of the town history in toponymy);
– commemoration (this approach traditionally provides for drawing attention to formation of ethnic and national identity and cultural matrix of the nation, but in the course of solving of nation-wide problems Vinnytsia historian group strived to be oriented to identity of local urban community);
– locality (conformity of toponyms to peculiarities of nature, history, economics and culture of Vinnytsia, Bratslavshchyna and Podillia regions);
– concreteness (provides for conformity of a toponym to its actual local (in line with toponym’s scale) circumstances (geographical, biological, industrial, cultural, religious, personological etc.);
– actualization (due regard to be paid to necessity of drawing attention to certain events and persons that, as a rule, are not of the nationwide scale).
Out of total 836 town place names 147 toponyms (85 names) have been replaced for new ones and reasoning for 5 names (12 toponyms) has been changed. Thus decommunization encompassed 19% of the town toponymical system.
Keywords: decommunization, Vinnytsia, toponymical system, toponym, commemoration.
Kirovograd is the city and regional center in Ukraine in 1939 – 2016, which bore the name of an odious leaders of the CPSU (b) S. M. Kirov (Kostrikov) (1886 – 1934). Kirov city was renamed by this title during the formation of the Kirovograd region in 1939, which was listed on maps USSR in 1934 – 1939. The city was called Zinovievsk in 1924 – 1934. Kirovograd city of Kirovograd region was renamed the city Kropivnitskiy on 14 July 2016. The historical name of this city is Yelisavetgrad.
The research is an attempt to show complicated and controversial process of decommunization of Kirovohrad – one of the two regional centers in Ukraine, which necessarily had to change the name of the Law of Ukraine “On the condemnation of Communist and National Socialist (Nazi) totalitarian regimes in Ukraine and the prohibition of propaganda of their symbolism”, which came into force on 21 May 2015. Since the problem of renaming of Kirovohrad at the time of the adoption of this law was not new to residents of the regional center, the author based on newspaper articles and personal memoirs recreates the story discussion about renaming the city, which continued in 1989 – 2016.
The researcher identifies several periods in the discussion above, that was in the city between the supporters of the idea of the return the historical name and those townspeople who fought for the right to name Kirovograd by the new Ukrainian name. The author identifies negative tendencies that crystallized between opponents in the debate, which, in his opinion, in the current political conditions prevailing in Ukraine, harm to anyone who seeks to build a European, democratic and highly cultured country.
Keywords: Kirovograd, rename, Yelisavetgrad, discussion, public hearings, historical name, the threat to national security.
The review of the academic journals on urban studies shows a pattern of periodicals from their founding to the present. The development of scientific bulletins associated with growing of research centers and urban studies in general. The early period of 1960’s-1980’s connected with rising of national schools of this direction of science. During this time the periodicals in national languages prevalent. With the globalization of nowadays, the predominance of publication in English is observed. It is noted the current change of the form of publication – from the paper to electronic – and modifying of journals’ role as a form of communication and presentation of research results. The author reviewed the journal by the national schools and makes notes on access to the publication via Internet, publishers’ websites.
The leading American journals on urban studies (such as Journal of Urban Economics, Urban Geography, Journal of Urban Planning and Development) show the diversity of direction of urban studies and the importance of interdisciplinary in researchers. British bulletins (International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Urban Studies Journal, Cities: The International Journal of Urban Policy and Planning etc.) have the highest ranking and influence. The Netherlands journals (Regional Science and Economics, Landscape and Urban Planning) gathered on the editorial boards the international teams of experts for achieving the high ranking. French publications of SAPIENS and Historie Urbaine are relatively ‘young’ and growing at national urban studies centers. Italian Scienze Regionali, Territorio, Città e Storia, polish Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series journals are developing at university centers and display the socio-geographical approach of urban studies. The author notes the editors of journals as the prominent researchers of urban studies.
The review gives tree ranking on urban studies journals – Web of Science, Google Scholar, SCImago Journal and Country Rank. It shows the dominance of Anglo-American system of academic journal publishing. As a conclusion, the author shows that successful modern academic journal on urban studies is edited in English at the science center with the international editorial board, it has both paper and web version with quarterly at least regularity of issuing.
Keywords: academic journal, urban studies, the ranking of journals, indexation of publication, scientific communication.
MARYNA HRYMYCH. KYIV IN THE DISCOURSE OF SPACE ANTHROPOLOGY. Rewiev of the book Гримич, М. (Ред.). (2016). Антропологія простору: збірник наукових праць (Т. 1). Київ: Дуліби.
TINA POLEK. «ORAL HISTORY IN THE CHANGING TIMES» – CHALLENGES OF ACADEMICISM AND PUBLICNESS. Conference review.
MYROSLAV BORYSENKO. Rewiev of the book Роман Любавський. (2016). Повсякденне життя робітників Харкова в 1920-ті – на початку 1930-х років. Харків.
TETIANA VODOTYKA. Rewiev of the book Жайме Лернер (2016). Акупунктура міста. Львів: Видавництво Старого Лева