The third issue of “City: History, Culture, Society” includes articles on several topics. Among them are urban archaeology, the city during modernization, the revolution in the city. Issue 3 also has a special topic – museum and the city. Several texts explore different aspects of the functioning of museums in urban space. The issue ends with a traditional book review.
BIBIKOV DMYTRO. МETALLURGY CENTER XI-XII CENTURIES IN VYSHGOROD HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RESERVE (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS, 1989)
The article to present to scientific circulation materials production complexes XI-XII centuries, excavated in 1989 in the west part posat in Vyshgorod (Nyzhni Dorohozhychi place). Their reinterpretation allows archaeologically traced almost all the major stages of the production and processing of iron. Refined dating of these objects and the construction of the posat of general. These data substantially complementary socio-economic characteristics of Kyiv Rus Vyshgorod
Keywords: Old Rus, Vyshgorod, мetallurgy.
LUKJANCHENKO VADIM. GORODNYA – KIEV DEFENSIVE WALLS IN IX–XIII CENTURIES. PART THREE. ZABOROLA (UPPER PART OF A FORTRESS WALL)
Studying the fortifications of the times of Kyivan Rus, it is necessary to consider them in unity with the tactics of the siege and defense of that time. A correct understanding of the development of defensive structures, their purpose and the causes of their appearance, of their various types and designs cannot be achieved without considering these structures in terms of those tactical principles and tactical requirements that were presented to them during combat use. In the presented work are compared and analyzed well-known publications on the materials of archaeological research, and is analyzed annalistic evidence of urban defensive fortifications of the Slavs of the IX-XIII centuries. The article presents author’s reconstruction of urban two-tier wooden fortifications of the IX-XIII centuries.
Keywords: Ancient Kiev, defensive walls, earth walls, fortifications.
SAMCHUK TARAS. THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSITY SPACE IN KYIV (THE HISTORY OF THE FIRST FACILITIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ST. VOLODYMYR)
The history of the first facilities of st. Volodymyr University and its situation in the city in 1830-40s were not in the center of special research before. That’s why the first period of the university existing can’t be fully described. For this reason, the aim of the study is to highlight the history of the first leased buildings of st. Volodymyr University in the context of the formation of university space. The term “university space” will be applied for describing all facilities of the university. This multi-concept will be specifically used to research the university’s physical space (the area of university buildings). This article is the first attempt to describe university space in Kyiv through the locating university facilities on the city space. This is the first step of reconstructing of the university life in Kyiv and studying out what features of university and city communication were at that time. The last stage of university space expansion during the first period of its existence was highlighted in the article. Particular attention was paid to the details of building construction. Information about the owners of facilities was also given in the article. Places of the situation of university facilities in the city space of Kyiv were highlighted in this research. A lot of archived and cartographical sources were used for this purpose. The unknown archived documents were used in the article. The study analyzed details of lease contracts of employment of homes for st. Volodymyr University. The article indicates which collections and departments were located in each of the leased buildings. The main conclusions show that university covered big yards not only buildings. The facilities of the university were located in different parts of the city. The St. Volodymyr University started to expand very quickly, that’s why a lot of new facilities were leased during the first period of the university history.
Keywords: university space, Kyiv, University of st. Volodymyr
GAUKHMAN MYKHAYLO. WORKERS OF DISTRICT TOWN: THE PLANT’S WORKERS OF LUHANS’K IN LABOR’S CONFLICTS AND REVOLUTIONARY WAVES DURING THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR
The article deals with the collective actions of plant workers in Luhans’k (in Russian pronunciation – Lugansk) in labor conflicts during the First Russian revolution (1905–1907) and the First World War (1914–1918). This town was one of the main towns of industrial Donbass and the center of Slovianoserbian district of Ekaterinoslavian province.
The relationships between administration and workers in Luhans’k are investigated on the materials of clerical work of Ekaterinoslavian province and memoirs of participators on events. These sources are especially about the behavior of workers from two big industrial enterprises – the Gartman plant and the Cartridges plant. In the crisis periods, such as revolutions and wars, the social-political relations are sharpened and changeable. And revolutions and wars left behind enough historical sources for studying workers’ history.
In the Luhans’k’s enterprises there were – during the First Russian Revolution – the general town’s strike in February 1905, the attempt of strike to the 1st of May 1905 in the Gartman plant, the strike in the Gartman plant in July 1905, the mass unrest in December 1905, the attempt of strike to the 1st of May 1906 in the Gartman plant, the lockout in the Gartman plant in March 1907 and the general town’s strike in July 1916 in the time of social-economics crisis during the First World War. The studying of strikes, attempts of strikes and mass unrests in 1905–1907 and 1916 allows defining some features of collective’s activity of plant’s workers:
1) the inconsistent solidarity of workers in the times of strikes. The general understanding of oppressed status and necessity of fighting for their rights spread among the workers during the strike’s waves, but this solidarity of workers didn’t cause to cooperative planned activities;
2) the crisis of vertical relationships between administrators and workers in the time of strikes of 1905 and 1916. In Patron plant subordination and paternalism were saved during the strike in February 1905, unlike in Gartman plant, but not in the strike in 1916;
3) the influence on workers of the revolutionary movement. Revolution ideas and local activists of illegal political parties were impacted of workers’ moods in the crisis times. In 1905 increasing of social-democrats’ activity in Luhans’k was the aftermath of town’s strikes. But in 1916 the spreading of revolutionary ideas preceded the emergence in workers’ dissatisfaction with their own situation during the social-economics crises, which was the cause of general town’s strike;
4) the workers’ capacity to spontaneous self-organization during strikes and making the continuously organization forms in the Gartman plant. In this enterprise in 1906 were formed two workers’ organizations: pawnshop and professional association. This association conflicted with plant’s administration in 1907 and headed the strikes in 1906.
Keywords: workers, the First Russian revolution, First World War, Donbass, Luhansk.
The article deals with the history of construction and functioning of the building at Volodymyrska St., 57 in Kyiv. During the Ukrainian Revolution, it was used as the location of the Central Council of Ukraine. The concept of building of this house is analyzed, the description of interior and exterior decoration is presented. The process of transition of the building to the status of the residence of the Central Council of Ukraine is described in detail. The further fate of the Central Council House, the functional transformation that it faced in the various periods of existence was investigated.
Keywords: the building of the Central Council of Ukraine, construction, transformation, first half of 20th century.
DVORKIN IHOR. MUSEUMS IN THE UKRAINIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT IN RUSSIAN-RULED UKRAINE IN THE LATE XIX AND EARLY XX CENTURY
The article deals with the place of museums and museum affairs in the Ukrainian national movement activity in the late XIX and early XX century. The Museum institutions enabled the representatives of the Ukrainian intellectuals, Ukrainophiles the legal way to spread the «Ukrainian project» idea. This happened in the absence of their own state and Russian imperial policy that denied the existence of a separate Ukrainian nation. The question of the imperial authorities influence to the development of museums and the control of Ukrainophiles activities is analyzed. Officially authorized by imperial power institutions, including museums, provided Ukrainophile’s wide opportunities. The imperial period museum institution by explicit or implicit intention of their founders had the potential to become Ukrainian national museums. The implementation of museum projects is presented in the article on the Kyiv Art, Industry and Science Museum and the Museum of Ukrainian Antiquities example. The article discusses the museum exhibitions and excursions impact to the perception of historical events by the public.
Keywords: museums, Ukrainian national movement, Ukrainophiles, imperial policy.
The CAMOC conference that took place in Berlin in 2011, with its theme “Participative Strategies in Capturing the Changing Urban World,” is part of a larger discussion that museums in general—and city museums in particular— have been having recently about our collections and whether they are serving our current needs. We have been assessing our collections—what we own versus what we wish we owned—and we are noticing a disconnect. Most of our collections were formed at the turn of the twentieth century, and we’re having a lot of trouble making them fit the stories we want to tell about our cities here in the twenty-first century. So, we’re experimenting with contemporary collecting, and participatory collecting, in an attempt to make our collections more inclusive and more representative. This is important work and we need to do more of it.
Keywords: city museums, urbanism, local history, emotion history
The article attempts to analyze the place of higher educational establishments (HEE) in general and its museums in particular playing in the city life. The empirical basis of the article is the information collected as a result of research visits to HEE in seven regions of Western Ukraine: Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ternopil, Volyn, Rivne, Chernivtsi and Zakarpattia, organized for 2013-2017. The main used method is interviews with personnel of HEE museums.
The author points out these «temples of muses» gradually moved away from its traditional educational and research mission in the 1980’s. Such reassessment of priorities had been caused by the crisis of the museum. For the last 30 years, it has become clear reduction of using the collections for teaching and research in many universities; some HEE plan to dispose collections and to close museums; many universities are working out alternative organizational models for managing collections in the one newly created museum. The crisis in the museum environment has imposed on the crisis, which the parent universities as institutions are encountering today -«crisis of identity» and «a crisis of resources», caused by the increasing often contradictory requirements to the high schools. On this background, the museums as individual units also began to increase requirements. It led to their gradual transformation into a museum of « the third generation». One of their defining mission is promoting the HEE, cooperation with the public in order to disseminate information about the university, vocational guidance, involvement of patrons and organization of other works implementing this direction. In particular, the article highlights atypical for the Ukrainian context the role of HEE museums -«shop-windows» and «show-cases», through which representatives of outside university environment can acquaint themselves with the achievements of high school and feel its special atmosphere. The author outlines a number of touristic potential of some HEE in Western Ukraine, where physical objects are interesting from an architectural and cultural point of view. Among the most striking examples is the main building of Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University., Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, campus of Lviv Polytechnic National University, campus of The National University of Ostroh Academy, Lviv State University of Life Safety, Kremenets Forestry College. Among the researched 74 HEE are roughly a quarter which can be classified as «visually attractive». However, less than 10 % of them use this advantage for brand developing. The relevant policy concerning museums and academic space, in general, will allow the high school to become a separate point on the tourist map, to establish relationships with the surrounding community and to participate actively in local cultural life.
Keywords: university, museum, higher educational establishments, tourism promotion, culture.
IVANOVA NATALIYA. ACTUALIZATION OF THE MUSEUM AS A CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL CENTER IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE OPEN PUBLIC SPACE (ON THE EXAMPLE OF MELITOPOL CITY LOCAL HISTORY MUSEUM)
The article reveals the ways of the museum transforming from a permanent place of preservation of artifacts of cultural heritage into open and dynamic social space of social interaction on the example of the Melitopol City Local History Museum over the past 5 years.
The Melitopol City Local History Museum is a cultural and educational institution with a 95-year old history and interesting experience. Nowadays the museum sees its future activity as a balance between the traditional functions of a museum institution and advanced art technologies. The strategic tasks of the museum’s staff are the promotion of such values as openness, dynamism, and modernity through the perception of the museum space as a territory where history comes to life.
In the article, the author describes the separate directions and examples of museum work in the field of design and research activities, organization of educational programs, the introduction of the latest and updating of the content of traditional forms of work, cooperation with public organizations at different levels are discussed.
Among the main factors of successful museum’s being up to date, the author mentions several ones on:
– election of the right strategic direction of development;
– participation in educational activities to improve the professionalism of museum workers;
– cooperation and exchange of experience with leading museums of Ukraine and the world;
– activation of participation in the project activity;
– introduction of innovative forms and participatory practices into their work;
– strengthening cooperation with NGO and individual cultural and educational initiatives.
The prospects for the further development of the museum are to preserve the contribution of previous generations to the cultural heritage of Ukraine and to seek new ways of using, popularizing and enriching it through the widest possible involvement of the public.
Keywords: museum, cultural-educational center, education throughout life.
The article is devoted to the created in the Park «Kievan Rus» Museum of Wooden Architecture. The reader can get acquainted with this unique phenomenon in the modern museum world as a project restoring ancient Kyiv ( «city of Vladimir») in 1: 1 scale.
Modern experience supply objective information and historical reconstructions (individual subjects, objects, and even entire urban locations) include providing opportunities to experience the atmosphere and the specifics of Kievan Rus in all its fullness. The perfect opportunity to achieve this is a reproduction of the image of the medieval city, but not on the monitors and models, but as in the original. Experience of the solution to the problem is a museum complex in the open air -«Park Kievan Rus». Today we can confidently assert that the ambitious project of PKR to reproduce the ancient capital grew to a powerful research center, which deals with a wide range of problems associated with medieval history, archaeology, and museology.
The author presents the basic features of the museum complex areas -reconstruction and construction of fortifications and sacral buildings, housing and commercial complexes, street network planning, and other constants medieval city.
One of the scientific and educational activities PKR is the creation of museums on its territory. One of these new museums -the Museum of Wooden Architecture. The museum is unique because it exhibits archaeological artifacts, reconstructed models of ancient structures housing, replicas of ancient tools of the carpenter.
According to archeological data, the main types of woodworking tools and their range took constant shape in the X-XI and remained unchanged until the XVIII century. The exhibition features tools that can be considered replicas of ancient counterparts, their identity is proven by archaeological artifacts. The basis of the comparative analysis underlying the development of V. Kharlamov. Among the exhibited things can be identified replica tesla, boats, planes, drills, saws, hammers and others.
Archaeological studies in recent years finally convince us wide distribution in Old Kiev namely carcass type residential buildings.
Keywords: Park ‘Kievan Rus’, museum, woodworking craft, architecture.
Scubiy I. (2017) Trade in Kharkiv during the years of new economic politics (1921-1929): Economics and everyday life (Olena Braichenko)