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Urban Studies: Global and Ukrainian Context
Established academic disciplinary distinctions led early anthropologists to study tribal societies;or village communities;while ignoring the city as a field of research. Thus;urban research became established in some academic disciplines;particularly sociology;but struggled to achieve such a status in anthropology. Over the years;historical events and geo-political changes have stimulated anthropologists to address processes of urbanization in developing countries; yet;urban research in western industrial societies continued to be left out of the mainstream disciplinary agenda. In this chapter we examine major debates in the development of this sub-discipline and discuss the complex methodological and theoretical challenges posed by field-research in urban settings;clearly identifying the significance of the anthropological paradigm in urban research and its centrality both to mainstream academic debates and to the broader society. Today an increasing number of anthropologists carry out research in cities. With half of humanity already living in towns and cities;growing to two-thirds in the next 50 years;there is no denying that research in urban settings is topical and needed as western and non-western society is fast becoming urban or mega-urban. Having outlined the background to current trends in this field of research;the discussion builds towards an assessment of the contribution that empirically-based anthropological analysis can make to our understanding of our increasingly urban world.
Keywords: cities’ diversity;ethnographic methodology;human mobility;regional diversity;space and place;urban research;urbanism;urbanization
The review is dedicated to activities of Research Institute of Urban History. The main attention turns to directions of the work of the Research Institute: 1. Multifaceted studying of urban history continuation of individual Institute’s members studies on various components of the urban past; realization of joint research projects connected with urbanization; organization of conferences and meetings dedicated to urban issues; cooperation with other research in-stitutions and associations involved in studying urban past);2. Developing a web-site of the Institute;which should become a platform for communica-tion scholars and the public involved and interested in urban history as well as for publishing articles and archival collections of the Research Institute; 3. Work as an editorial board and authors of historical-cultural anthology “Frontiers of city”. 4. Conducting oral historical research on urban history with the formation of an archive of oral historical narrative theoretical and practical training for interviewers; preparing and conducting expeditions; systematization;processing the collected materials; preparation of materials for publication);5. Development and maintenance of the archive of film doc-uments related to urban history heuristic work in archives; identifying and copying film documents from private collections; participation in creation on the basis of these film documents documentaries and popular science films on the history of cities);6. Development and maintenance of the depositary of photographs related to the history of “urban space”; 7. Creating in the structure of the Research Institute the Museum of Berdyansk State Pedagog-ical University;which in a broader context may be considered as a museum of the history of education in an urban area; 8. Public activities aimed at popularization of urban history and at interaction of researchers with society organization of exhibitions;competitions;etc.; initiation and implementation of public projects).
Keywords: urban studies;Research Institute;urban history.
The article presents establishing and developing the Center for Urban History in Lviv as a part of larger trend to promote and institutionalize urban history and urban studies in Ukraine and Eastern Europe. Discussing founding ideas and program;as well as their further implementation gives an insight into academic as well as public landscapes of urban research;both locally and internationally. The Center was founded in 2004 as a private foundation in Vienna and two years later;in 2006;the office was established in Lviv to launch its program activities. Major objectives of the Center are to promote research on the history of cities and towns in Eastern and Central Europe; to advance urban history as an interdisciplinary field and a platform for international cooperation; to enhance critical understanding of urban history and heritage in cooperation with local and international institutions; to engage into contemporary cultural life in the city and thus contribute to public and open engagement with the past. Three major focuses of work of the Center were gradually shaped and now they include research;digital archiving;digital and public history. While initially many projects focused on Lviv;expanding geographical scope was part of development of the institution. Therefore;presently;the interests include various urban experiences;such as of historical cities;Soviet cities;industrial and mono-industrial;multiethnic cities;as well as the cities surviving conflicts and violent transformations.Over the 10 years of its activities;the Center has become both the institution to conduct research and an instrumental actor to transform symbolic spaces of Lviv;the place for discussions and presentation of results of other studies and initiatives;a platform for informal educational practices and a laboratory to develop new ways of contextualizing;representing and using different archival media and documents. Different formats such as schools;conferences;workshops;seminars;lectures;presentations and round tables;exhibitions;interactive maps;digitalization and promotion of collections of photo and video materials;and educational programs for children and adults constitute our program activities and help engaging broader academic and non-academic audiences into a dialogue to promote participatory historical culture in Ukraine.
This article deals with a very topical problem of localization of the chronicle Unenizh on the territory of todays Nizhyn. In this research the history of archaeological research of the monument which is now associated with the chronicle Unenizh is presented. The history of the formation is also examined on base of the analysis of the chronicle reports of the basic concepts of the Unenizh’s localization. Two main concepts are analyzed in detail.Particular attention is paid to the results of archaeological research on the territory of the tract “Gorodok” Commune) in Nizhyn;Chernihiv region. It describes in detail the studied archaeological sites in the territory of the settlement and trading quarter. Here the whole complex of archaeological material is also regarded.The hypothesis of impossibility of Unenizh’s location in the territory of the tract “Gorodok” in Nizhyn is put forward and substantiated on the basis of the latest archaeological research and chronicle reports in the study.
Keywords: Unenizh, Nizhyn, archaeological research, chronicles message.
Studies of the architectural image of ancient Kiev include many import-ant aspects that require significant archeological and bibliographic research. Among of them one of the most important question is the structural and functional features of the defensive walls of the capital of Kiev Rus. The article reviewed the more common opinion about the broad development in Russia fortifications of earthen walls with inner wooden structure in the X-XIII cent. Considered some recreations of historical reconstruction of the wood-en-defensive fortifications in Denmark;Poland and Ukraine. In this study compared and analyzed known publications on the archeological and bibliographical research; scientific;and the hypothetical reconstruction of the city fortifications Slavs in period of IX–XIII cent.;as well as presents the author’s hypothesis evolution of wood-earth fortifications. The author argues that the division designs embankments on “complex” and “simple” types – wrongly. Earthworks at their construction never rein-forced initially.
Keywords: Ancient Kiev;defensive walls;ramparts.
The article is devoted to sacred areas located in the south-eastern part of Old-Rus Podil district. This area has remained poorly investigated for a long time compared to other areas of this Old Kyiv region. Archaeological researches of period 2007–2015 greatly expanded our understanding of the south-eastern part of old Podil. In this paper;we tried to reconstruct the sacred locuses of this territory. In the tenth century Kyiv consisted of a populated town – a large coastal area – Podil and of small sacral-administrative part – Detinets on Zamkova Hill and the necropolis on the Old Kiev Hill. Due to active development of a new city in the days of the reign of Vladimir son of Svyatoslav and his son Yaroslav the Wise;inhabitants of Podil;now Christians;have had to look for another place to bury their dead. They were forced to look for areas in the territory without mass urban development.Henceforth cemeteries are beginning to play a significant role in shaping the structure of the medieval town of Kyiv-Podil. Several cemeteries was located at the extreme points of the settlement area;which;due to waterlog-ging and flood threats were unsuitable for life. It was proposed to use the term to define such cemeteries in the structure of ancient Podil – “outlying cemeteries”. Three of these cemeteries and one single burial excavated in the south-eastern part of ancient Podil. Cemeteries found on the Naberezhno-Khreschatytska;1-а str. and Naberezhno-Khreschatytska;9 str. belong to the earliest Podol burial grounds;their active functioning on the XI century. The cemetery opened in 2015 at the Postal Square and burial of women Pe-tra Sagaydachnogo 6-в str.) belong to another chronological period. They date back to the XII – the first half of the XIII century. Recent studies have shown that a sufficiently large area in the south-eastern outskirts of OldRus Podil were unsuitable for settlement and so they are often used for a cemetery.
Keywords: Old Rus;Kyiv Podil;funeral rites;accompanying equipment;stratigraphy.
For the first time author presents archaeologically fixed objects of wooden architecture of the Rus time on Kyiv-Podil;which are interpreted as bath-houses. Author worked on written;ethnographical;and archaeological scources;which confirms the possibility of the existence of such buildings in the biggest parts of Ancirnt Kyiv. Several problems of massive buildings and planning structure of Ancient Kyiv-Podil are taken into consideration. The first one is detachment of the bath-houses themselves from more than 300 fixed objects of wooden architecture. It is proposed to use O. S. Khoroshev’s method;which was implemented on Novgorod excavations. The second question is due to the interpretation of researched objects. This article is the first in the course of surveys on the objects of hygiene in Ancient Kyiv.
Keywords: bath-house;hygiene;Kyiv-Podil;Ansient Rus;archaeology;city structure.
Article is devoted to the collection of stove tiles;originated from archaeological objects on the territory of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra National Preserve. The collection includes stove units of XV–XIX centuries;which illustrate important aspects of history Kyiv-Pechersk Monastery and partly a history of Ukrainian tiles’ industry. The material is structured according to the chronological periodization of tiles’ evolution. The earliest findings are pot-like tiles XV–XVI centuries) and tiles with half-sphere external bend in the center of the base. Chronologically next group is the series of findings of early tablet tiles ХVІ–XVII centuries. They are decorated with the sacral or myth stories;anthropomorphic or teratological figures;and element of Ancient Rus’ symbols. The biggest group is tiles of XVIІ–XVIII centuries includes a wide range of products of different types and styles. The ending of Ukrainian tiles industry is illustrated by XIX century tiles. In this article;we worked on the brightest examples of stove tiles from the territory of Kyiv-Pechersk monastery. We also compared them with the synchronic examples from Pechersk. This data deserves further examining and may include different aspects. One of them is to try to make more clearly chronological differentiation of the collection;linking them to the particular periods of monastery’s history or to the particular household objects of monastery structure. It should be mentioned;that the findings needs conservation and restoration. As far as it will be done;the findings could be full museum collection.
Keywords: archaeological finds of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, stove tiles;Early Modern and Modern age
City in Modern Age
The article is based on the reports of Nizhyn voivodes in the 1650-70th;which describe us the financial position;profits and expenditures of Nizhyn voivodes. Also the research shows the situation in Ukraine;movement of Tatar troops and rebels mood;reports of escaping the military men as well.
Key words: Nizhyn;voivode;report;acts of South Western Russia.
Modernization Processes in Cities: Empire and Soviet Discourse
The searching for new ways to finance Ukrainian education;science and culture leads to the studying of the historical experience of the previous years. These lessons could be very helpful to the contemporaries. Nevertheless this topic is still less researched in the Ukrainian historiography. The article deals with the problems of the material support of the educational and cultural institutions in the cities of the Ukrainian SSR during the 1920’s. The main attention is paid to the highlighting of the role of the cities budgets to the problem mentioned above. The process of the legislative regulation of the financing of the educational and cultural spheres and in particular – the division of the funding for the institutions of the social education;the vocational education and the political literacy between the state and local budgets is traced on the basis of the analysis of the normative legal acts of the Ukrainian Soviet authorities. The working out the operational and reporting documentation of the different departments;statistical data and the materials of the periodicals makes it possible to reveal the practical consequences of the transferring a large part of educational spending to the local finances. In the early 20’s XX century this decision led to the reducing of the educational institutions;the number of teachers and, of course, the number of children covered with education. The studying the expenditure part of the cities budgets allows us to determine how much money was allocated to the development of the educational and cultural institutions in 1923–1928, to outline the priority of the financing of the certain spheres and to highlight the specific appointment of the educational expenditures. The research showed that the budget spending on education had been steadily increasing. Ukrainian cities spent more than 80 million rubles on the item during that period. Most of these funds were absorbed by the social education institutions. The institutions of the political literacy were on the second place and the institutions of the vocational education were the last. At the same time more than a half of all the educational expenditures were spent on the salary of the pedagogical and technical workers. The Ukrainian cities directed the average 19.5 % of the total cities budgets to the development of the education and culture at the end of the 1920’s. However;it was not enough to satisfy all the needs of the urban citizens. This problem was partly solved by the transferring of the some institutions on the system of patronage;partly – by introduction of tuition fees;but mainly – by self-taxation of the population of the Ukrainian SSR.
Keywords: Ukrainian SSR; 1920’s; educational and cultural institutions; local finances; cities budgets; educational expenditure
There are official and traditional names of places upon the territory of the town or the city. They have existed from the ancient times till contemporary days. The official ones have been given by the executive body;and the traditional names are describing the place by nearby locations;buildings or nature objects. Toponyms are divided in different classes and subclasses. Horonyms describe nonlinear structures territories) and were used to call any places on town’s area;except for streets or squares. Horonyms do not provide the in-formation about the official administrative division of the contemporary time;but were putting traditional names in use.In order to answer the question – how long this class of the city’s names lasted;one have to base on retrospective comparison of the pre-statistical source. The contemporary vocabulary of Lviv’s dialect “Leksykon lvivskyy povazhno i na zhart”) have fixed 65 horonyms of Lviv’s area;which currently are being used by city dwellers. That was the basement of analysis by the retrospective method. This data was compared with such sources: late 19 c.-ear-ly 20 c. guidebooks and middle 19 c. maps with their accompaniment notes. The administrative units’ division of Lviv’s territory was applied in this article;because during long 19 century Lviv was a part of Austro-Hungary Empire. That’s why 4 groups of horonyms were excluded: 1. the names of the former city’s villages that are currently preserved as the city’s horonyms;because those villages were absorbed into the city only during 20-th century. Today names of those former villages do not reflect the administrative units’ division);2. village Sygnivka;which was founded only in the 20th years of 19thcentury on the area of the former suburb Halytskie of Lviv’s early modern period; 3. the names of villages;which surrounded town’s area;but were not under the rule of the town hall; 4. all names of objects;which were upon the area of these villages. So after exclusion we have 48 names horonyms). Analysis showed that one name came into being in late 20th century and eight other ones during its first half. Fifteen horonyms;as well;as their names were founded during 19thcentury. So;that leaves us with twenty-four names;which were established during earlier period and are being used now in the city. We need to continue research on a retrospective comparison of the named recorded in the early modern serial sources.
Keywords: urbanonym;horonym;traditional name;Lviv.
The article examines practices of writing “national histories” of cities of the Southern Ukraine;when the past of a settlement is considered from the perspective of a particular ethnic group;with emphasis on the role of this group in the history of the town city). At the same time;the attention is paid to at-tempts of overcoming the limitations caused by this “national” approach. It is argues that although the thesis about multi-ethnicity of the “urban space” of the Southern Ukraine has long been axiomatic and was applied by almost all researchers who studied different aspects of urban history of the region;it does not mean that each of these researchers considered the Southern Ukraine as a frontier;and towns cities) of the region – as “outposts” of this frontier; moreover it does not mean that researchers are unanimous in their perception of the cities of the South as the “melting pots”;which leveled the national characteristics of the townspeople;changing them by other identities.
Keywords: frontier;urban history;historiography;Southern Ukraine.
Modern Ukrainian historical science faces with many challenges that require a scientific solution. Exploring the life and work of famous people and history of individual regions of Ukraine are among them. The end of 19th – the beginning of 20th centuries in the history of Ukraine is characterized by a general revolutionary exaltation that was caused by sharp contradictions;national oppression;political disenfranchisement of the population. It is a time when new creators of history enter the political scene. Nowadays the important task is to rethink the role of the individual in history;to explore creative people;to fill the historical process with energetic;working people;to make this process anthropocentric. It is necessary not only to revive the forgotten names;but to determine a place for each personality in the history of Ukraine. The aim of the article is to show the features of the pre-revolutionary past of Kherson city from the perspective of Leonid Solovyov;indigenous inhabitant;engineer;qualified worker of Kherson sea port and brilliant memoirist. In his memoirs he described the city in pre-revolutionary times and showed the changes of Kherson during Soviet power. Memoirs memories) – a special kind of written historical sources that reflect the author’s understanding of past reality and historical consciousness of personality of their creator. They are about the past based mostly on a personal memory of the author and his own impressions of those events in which he participated or which he watched by himself. In his memoirs;we see dualistic nature of historical sources;because;on one hand;they record information about the past and;therefore;it is its reflection. On the other hand;memoirs are part of the period in which they came on. Today Mr. Solovyov’s memoirs are unexplored;and this article is the first attempt to show the role of this personality. Pre-revolutionary Kherson had a number of its features. It was a small;quiet;calm;provincial town. Mr. Solovyov remembers the city since 1914. He was always interested in the history of his native city. The comparison of pre-revolutionary and soviet Kherson from the perspective of ordinary citizen of Kherson are particularly useful. Most of Kherson citizens worked as merchants;officials;entrepreneurs and small haggler. The workers were a minority;lived mainly in the suburbs and had their property;farm. It was a typical and traditional demonstration of the usual Ukrainian way of life. The result of long and hard work of Mr. Solovyov as ethnographer is a significant number of photo albums;including “Kherson sea port”;“Flood in Kherson”;extracts from books;magazines;newspapers about ports of Kherson;Skadovsk;Khorly;and;of course;a memoirs about his native city and port which contain unvalued layer of interesting information about the history of our city.It is shown the role of the individual in history and the impact of circumstances and environment in the formation of his world view and future activities from Mr. Solovyov example. It is a first time when researcher is depicted as a citizen whose life was dedicated to the service of society. The results of his work played big role in today’s economic and cultural potential of our city. Mr. Solovyov’s big experience in organization of effective work in the port;the realization of his interests in studying historical characteristics of the land has not lost its practical value and is useful today.
Keywords: memoirs;local historian;historical past;Kherson city;historical sources.
Reviews and Timeline
Volodymyr Shevchenko. Review of the Urban Studies section at the conference “Shevchenko Spring 2016” and discussion panel “City Researches: Academic and Popular” Faculty of History of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University;April 21;2016)